The Mediterranean Station (1816 - 1838)


National Intelligencer (Washington, DC) Abstracts, 1820‑1835


TUE APR 11, 1820


Died: on Mar 29, at his house in Charlestown, Va., in his 29th year, Lieutenant John Packett, U.S.N.  He was in the action with Java; served as a Midshipman in Constitution under Commodore Bainbridge; was at Lake Erie and aided in the victory of Sep 10, 1813.


SAT MAY 19, 1821


Ofcrs attached to the Constitution

Cmdor Jacob Jones; Cpt B W Booth


Foxhall A Parker                             Geo. W Storer                           David Geisinger

Saml L Breese                                 Wm Boerum                              Jos R Jarvis


Edmund M Russell                           Richd A Jones                           Jott S Paine

John M Sullivan                               John Marston                             John D Bird

Saml F Dupont                                Archibald R Bogardus                Wilson C Purviance

Thos B Worthington                        Lucius C Heylin                          John H Little

John Hambleton                               Chas W Gray                            J Bradford

F B Ellison                                       Thompson D Shaw                    Henry J Auchmuty

Saml Gaillard                                   Edw S Lewis                             Thos H Saul

John Marshal                                   John L Buchanan

Sailing Mstr, Jas H Ferguson

Purser, Thos Breese

Surg, Geo S Sproston

Surg mates: Wilmot S Rogers & Thos J Boyd

Chaplain, Addison Searl

Marine Oficer, Lt Richd Auchmuty

Passengers: Capt John H Elton, Lts McKeever & Levy

The complement of seamen & boys is about 400 - Marines 50 - all told, 500.


MON JUN 7, 1824


Died: on Wed, on the qtr deck of the U S frig Constitution, Navy Yd  N. Y., Capt Saml Evans, of the U S N, having ruptured a blood vessel in ascending the gangway of that ship.


WED NOV 3, 1824


List of officers attached to Constitution.


THU JUL 6, 1826


Died: on May 1 last, of typhus fever, on board the U S ship Constitution, at Gibraltar, De Witt Birch, M. D., Surg's mate in the U S Navy.


WED AUG 1, 1827


Arrival of the ship N.C. [North Carolina], of 74 guns, Cmdor John Rodgers, 58 days from Gibraltar, anchored in Hampton Rds on Jul 28; absent from the U. S. for 28 mos…

Ofcrs transferred & left in the Mediterranean:

Lt Robt B Randolph, in the ship Constitution;…  Midshipman:…Edw O Blanchard, to the ship Constitution


MON FEB 25, 1828                       


.The U. S. ship of the line Delaware, Capt John Downes, left Hampton Rds, on Tues last, destined for the Mediterranean…


…Lt S W Downing, to join the U. S. ship Constitution


SAT JUL 12, 1828


Died on Apr 7, at Port Mahon, of pulmonary consumption, Midshipman Henry Kip Mower, attached to the U. S. frig Constitution.


FRI AUG 22, 1828


Wm Smith, a new recruit on board the U. S. frig Constitution, at present living [sic: lying] at the Navy Yd, Charlestown, on Tue fell from the main mast head to the vessel on deck; he survived but a few hrs - Boston ppr.


FRI OCT 14, 1831


Theatrical: debut in this country: Miss Clifton was born in N Y on Mar 9, 1814; lost her fr before she was 12 mo old he was killed on board the frig Constitution, in her action with Cyane, Feb 20, 1815.  Her bro is now serving as a midshipman on board the sloop of war Kensington.  Miss C was educated at Emmetsburg Seminary, Md: returned to this city 3 yrs ago.  [Not supported by muster roll.]


THU MAR 22, 1832


Died: on Mar 17, of dropsy, at the U S naval Hosp, at Portsmouth, Va, Lt Alex'r Eskridge, of the U S navy, a ntv of Va, aged 39.  He had but a short time since returned from a long cruise in the Mediterranean, in the frig Constitution.  Previous to, & during the cruise, he had been in very bad health, & on arrival here, finding that his disease was assuming a most dangerous character, he went on Feb 2 to the hosp.  He entered the svc of his country Jan 1, 1812 - promoted to the rank of Lt, Mar 5, 1817.  In all actions of the frig Constitution, during the late war, he nobly did his duty.


WED MAY 18, 1833


Case of Robert B. Randolph, late Lt. on board Constitution who was dismissed after discovery of irregularities in accounts while acting Purser after Purser Timberlake became deranged and attempted suicide; also attempt by Randolph to kill President Andrew Jackson. 


WED NOV 20, 1833


Robert B. Randolph arrested and confined in Richmond, Va, jail.


FRI NOV 22, 1833


Fears that a mob may try to break Robert B. Randolph out of jail.


THU JAN 2, 1834


Copy of the Randolph cae before U S Circuit Court & opinion of Chief Justice Marshall.


TUE FEB 18, 1834


Died on Feb 10, at his residence in Prince Georges County, Md, Lt Jos Cross, of the U S Navy.  The dec'd entered the Navy, a Mdshpmn, in 1811, & served throughout the war on board the frig Constitution, participating in all her well-fought battles.  He was among those sons of Md & on whom t he Leg of their ntv state, with a becoming sense of their gallant svcs, had bestowed swords, & other marks of approbation.


WED JUL 2, 1834


Boston, Jun 21.  The noble frig Constitution was hauled out of the Dry Dock this morning, at the Navy Yd & viewed by many persons assembled to see her.  The repairs, when after nrly 40 yrs riding triumphantly, were undergone & have been very extensive.  With the exception of her floor timbers, & a few strips of plank on her garboard streak, we understand that the whole ship has been built up of new materials: the original model carefully preserved -- Merc.


SAT DEC 27, 1834


Died: On Dec 10, at Jamaica, L. I., after a lingering illness, Capt Beekman V Hoffman, of the U S Navy, in his 46th year.  Lt. Beekman Verplank Hoffman served in this capacity on board of the frig Constitution, the immortal "Old Ironsides," in all her celebrated battles, coming out of the fight unscathed & unwounded, to die on shore, in the bosom of his family & of that land, it is true, to whose star-spangled banner his svcs had given a luster, but like his renowned predecessors, Decatur, Perry & MacDonough, cut off at an age too premature etc.  He was born Nov. 28, 1789, & entered the American Navy at age 14, as a midshipman.  He was on board the ship Argus before the victories over Guerriere & Java, & finally in her capture of the ships Cyane & Levant, the former of which he brought into N Y as a prize-mstr.  After the war he was promoted to mstr-comdt & post=capt, cmnded first the Ship Tom Bowline, & afterwards the sloop of war Boston, during her long cruise on the So A sta; since his return he has been residing with his family as hisseat at Jamaica L I, where in the midst of domestic happiness, he has been hurried by a dropsical affection of the chest to an untimely grave, -- Star.


SAT JAN 24, 1835


Obit: died Lt Wm Taylor, of the U S Navy.  A mere boy on board the ship Constitution, was in her first victory of the ship Guerriere, as an aid to Capt Hull.  He Was in the action of the same ship with the ship Java, while still a boy - he filled the honorable post to the intrepid Bainbridge on the occasion I had the honor to be his surgeon.  I saw him at his gun on that memorable night, that the same Constitution tore down the colors that valor had nailed to the mast.  This exploit was indeed well, & described by the brave young Scotchman, Capt Douglas, who was a senior in Command, as the "coup de grace" of the war.  When that young nobleman presented his sword to Capt Stewart, it was gallantly returned. -- K [Surgeon John A. Kearney]


THU FEB 26, 1835


Cmdor Hull has been presented with a beautiful vase from a lock taken from the timbers of the U S frig Constitution.  It was carved by Mr Ives, an ingenious artist of Boston.  On one side is the chase of the Constitution by the Brit squad; the other side - her encounter with the ship Guerriere.  On the circle of the vase are the heads of 6 principal Naval Ofcrs.


MON MAR 9, 1835


Cmdor Downes has been appt'd to the command of the Navy Yd at Charlestown, nr Boston, Mass, to succeed Cmdor Elliott, app't to the cmnd of the frig Constitution.


FRI JUN 26, 1835


NY Jnl of Commerce, Jun 23.  The frig Constitution,Cmdor Elliott, came up this morning, fired a salute  & anchored in the North Rvr.  Mr. Livingston & family came ashore in a Lt's barge, under a 2nd salute, & landed on the steps at Castle Garden.  He will soon repair to Wash City.



Military And Naval Magazine Of The United States

(March 1833 - February 1836)


VOLUME II (September 1833-February 1834)


Number 1


Page 63 -- Lieutenant S. F. Dupont married Sophia M., daughter of E. J. Dupont. at                                                                                                              Eleutherian Mills, Delaware, 27 June 1833.

 --   Commodore William Bainbridge died at Philadelphia on 27 July 1833.

--   Passed Midshipman Wm F. Hooe died in King County, Virginia, on 14 August 1833


Volume V (March-August 1835)


Number 1


Page 78 -- The U.S. frigate Constitution has been fitted for sea at Boston, and will sail                     shortly for the Mediterranean.  The following officers have been ordered to her: Commodore J. D. Elliott, commander.

     Lieutenants--J. B. Montgomery, F. Ellery, W. C. Nicholson, E. C. Rutledge, G. F. Pearson, F. A. Neville.

     Surgeon--T. J. Boyd.  Assistant Surgeons--I. Brinckerhoff, R. Woodworth.

     Purser--H. Etting.  Chaplain--J. Everett.

     Master--J. Ferguson.  Second Master--J. M. Berrien.

     Passed Midshipmen--J. F. Duncan, C. Steedman, J. W. Revere, J. W. Cooke, W. T. Muse, J. L. Henderson.

     Midshipmen--G. T. Sinclair, G. W. Randolph, J. N. Maffitt, T. Oakes, B. F. Shattuck, W. S. Parkinson, E. C. Anderson, S. D. Trenchard, E. E. Rodgers, R. H. Jenkins, J. B. Lewis, T. S. Haggerty, R. H. Tilghman.

     Boatswain--W. Hart.  Carpenter--J. A. Dickson.

     Gunner--T. Ryley.  Sailmaker--N. C. L'Hommedieu.


Page 80 -- First Lieutenant Joseph L. C. Hardy under orders to the frigate Constitution,

     February 1835.


Number 2


Page 159 -- The frigate Constitution was towed up to the Navy Yard at New York, by the    steamboats American Eagle and Flushing, on Wednesday the 11th March; when opposite the battery she fired a salute.  On Sunday morning, 15th March, the ship was towed down the harbor by two steamboats, and went to sea about ten o'clock with a pleasant breeze.


Number 4


Page 319 -- The frigate Constitution, Com. Elliott, arrived at Havre, on the 10th April, in   24 days from New York.  Com. E. proceeded immediately to Paris, with dispatches for our minister.


Number 6


Page 479 -- The following officers have been detached from the U. S. frigate Constitution:

      Lieutenants: F. Ellery and E. C. Rutledge -- Purser H. Etting -- Passed Midshipman J. F. Mercer -- Midshipmen J. B. Lewis, B. F. Shattuck, F. P. Hoban, and F. Oakes -- Carpenter J. A. Dickason.

     Purser J. N. Hambleton has been ordered to the Constitution, vice Etting relieved.

     Commodores Chauncey and Morris, Commissioners of the Navy, being in New York, visited the frigate Constitution on Friday, 10th July.


Volume VI (September 1835-February 1836)


Number 1


Page 74 -- The United States frigate Constitution, bearing the broad pennant of Commodore J. D. Elliott, sailed from New York on the 19th August, for the Mediterranean.  So many changes in her officers have taken place since her return to New York, that we publish the list entire.


            List of Officers attached to the United States ship Constitution.


     Jesse D. Elliott, Esq., Commander of the Mediterranean squadron.

     Lieutenants--William Boerum, George F. Pearson, Frederick A. Neville, John Colhoun, James M. Watson.

     Henry A. Steele, Acting Sailingmaster; Henry Darcantel, 2d do.

     J. L. C. Hardy, First Lieutenant Marines.

     Thomas J. Boyd, Surgeon of the fleet in the Mediterranean.

     John N. Hambleton, Purser.

     Assistant Surgeons.--Robert Woodworth, Victor L. Godon.

     Commodore's Secretary.--Jesse E. Dow.

     Passed Midshipmen.--Harry P. T. Wood, Percival Drayton, B. W. Hunter, Wm T. Muse, Charles Steedman,
    Wm S. Ringgold, Jos. W. Revere, Edward Middleton, Montgomery Lewis, George L. Selden, Charles C. Barton,
    James W. Cooke.

     Midshipmen.--George W. Randolph, George T. Sinclair, Charles Hunter, Henry P. Robertson, C. E. Fleming,

      E. C. Anderson, Eugene E. Rodgers, A. H. Jenkins, Charles Wager.

     Captain's Clerk, John C. Holland.  Boatswain, Robert Whitaker.  Gunner, Thomas Ryley.  Sailmaker,
     Nath. C. L'Hommedieu.  Carpenter, Francis Sager.  Purser's Clerk, Edwin A. Teagle.




     Master Commandant Silas H. Stringham, to take command of the John Adams.

     Lieutenant John A. Davis, for the John Adams.

     Surgeon, Robert J. Dodd.


                                                 For the schooner Shark.


     Ebenezer Ridgeway, Lieutenant Commandant.

     Lieutenants, B. J. Totten, Thomas W. Brent.

     Midshipman Charles Haywood.

     Joseph Hoban, Captain's Clerk to Lieutenant Commanding Ridgeway.

     On the arrival of the Constitution the Delaware 74 will return to the United States.


Page 75 -- Midshipman R. C. Tilghman resigned, 24th July.


Number 3


Page 234 -- Frigate Constitution, Commodore Elliott, arrived at Gibraltar, 11th September    --twenty-three days from Sandy Hook -- all well.


Number 4


Page 316 -- The U. S. Frigate Constitution, Commodore Elliott, left Gibraltar for Mahon on the 18th September.


Number 5


Page 383 -- "Killed and Wounded on board the Guerriere.

          Killed--3 officers, 12 seamen and marines.

          Wounded--J. A. Dacres [sic], captain, 4 officers, 57 seamen and marines.

          Missing--Lieutenants Pullman and Roberts, and 22 seamen and marines, supposed to have gone overboard with the masts."



                              Hingham (MA) Gazette, 28 JUNE 1833


President Andrew Jackson arrived in Boston on 21 June and was quickly involved in many ceremonies.


The President missed church on Sunday morning, complaining of fatigue, but felt better in the afternoon and attended services at Old South Meeting House that evening.


On Monday morning, 25 June, he was "unable to be present" at the drydocking of CONSTITUTION.  On that occasion, Commodore Hull presented a cane of CONSTITUTION wood to Vice President Van Buren for delivery to the President.  He made similar presentations to the Governor of Massachusetts and to Joel Poinsett, representing the Governor of South Carolina.


At ceremonies at Bunker Hill Monument that afternoon, after brief remarks, the President was "presented with a box made from the timber of 'Old Ironsides,' containing a ball thrown at the Battle of New Orleans, and another thrown at the Battle of Bunker Hill."  Later that day, Jackson visited the Navy Yard, then proceeded on to Salem via Lynn.




Army And Navy Chronicle (1835-1844)

[Note: Selected isuues.]

Volume I

Number 1 (January 3, 1835)

From “Proceedings in Congress:” “On the motion of Mr. Lane of Indiana, Resolved, That the Committee on Military Affairs be instructed to inquire into the expediency of providing by law for the education, at the Military Academy, of the Junior Midshipmen now in service, and of such as may be hereafter appointed.  The whole number of students not to exceed the number of Cadets allowed by the existing laws.”  (Page 3, column 2.)

Copied from official sources, the British and French navies, as of January 1835, consisted of:

British                                                            French

 22 ships of the line (100+ guns)                   

 99 ships of the line (74 guns and up)          40 ships of the line (74-80 guns)

     104 frigates (42 guns and up)                      52 frigates (1st, 2nd, 3rd classes)

     310 ships (36-40 guns)                               25 corvettes

                                                                       300 brigs, schooners, gunboats 

       22 steam vessels                                       17 steam vessels               (Page 8.)


Number 2 (January 8, 1835)

Death notice of Captain B. V. Hoffman.  Died of dropsy, 10 December 1834, at Jamaica, LI, NY.  (Page 16.)


Number 4 (January 22, 1835)


Reported deaths during 1834:

Captain B. V. Hoffman, 10 Dec, Jamaica, LI.

Lieutenant Joseph Cross, 10 Feb, Prince George’s County, MD.. 

Sailing Master Wm Knight, 22 Jul, Philadelphia. 



Lieutenant Philip A Stockton 14 Feb.

Midshipman A. Wadsworth, 6 Sep.            (Page 32.)


Number 5 (January 29, 1835)



Lieutenant William Taylor, 13 Jan 1835, at Norfolk, VA.  (Page 40.)

Number 6 (February 5, 1835)


    “It has been stated in several papers, on the authority of a letter from an officer of the Navy at Norfolk, that the ship of the line North Carolina, frigates Constitution and United States, and three sloops of war, have been ordered to get ready for sea immediately.

    “We have reason to believe that the statement with regard to the first named of these vessels is premature.  Orders may have been issued to have certain vessels put in a state of readiness to be equipped for sea.--  The only two known to be preparing are the frigate Constitution and the sloop of war Peacock.  Both will be ready for sea, probably, in the course of the present month…”  (Page 48.)

Number 7 (February 12, 1835)


Passed Midshipman J. DeCamp returned from the Mediterranean in ill health.  (Page 52.)

Number 8 (February 19, 1835)


“The Boston Evening Gazette states, that a beautiful vase has been made for Commodore Hull, out of a block of wood from the hull of ‘Old Ironsides,’ the U. S. frigate Constitution.  It was carved by Mr. Ives, an ingenious artist of that city.  One side of the vase represents the Constitution chased by the British fleet; the other, her affair with the Guerriere, off Gloucester, after the action, the Guerriere, in flames.  On the circle of the vase, are six heads of the principal naval officers, viz.:- Hull, Bainbridge, Lawrence, Stewart and others; and the handles represent a grape vine, similar to the famous Warwick vase.  It is certainly well done, and as a specimen of finished carving, does great credit to the artist.”  (Page 61.)


Passed Midshipman Charles Crillon Barton married Anna, eldest daughter of Hugh F. Hollingshead of Philadelphia, on 2 Feb.     (Page 64.)

Number 9 (February 26, 1835)


“Our Navy Yard at Charlestown presents at this moment rather a busy scene: a number of the largest size guns, and a great quantity of ammunition were received at the yard while we were there a few days since, and we understand that more is on that way, and that orders have been received ‘to have the Constitution and Boston fitted for sea as quick as possible.’  The former is nearly ready… -- Boston Advocate.” (Page 72.)


Lieutenant Franklin Buchanan married Nannie, daughter of the late Governor Lloyd of Maryland, on 19 Feb.  (Page 72.)

Number 10 (March 5, 1835)


“It is stated in the Boston newspapers that Commodore Elliott has taken command of the U. S. Frigate Constitution.  There is no foundation, we believe, for the rumor that Commodore Rodgers was going out in this ship to assume the command of our squadron in the Mediterranean.”  (Page 76.)

“List of officers ordered to the U. S. Frigate Constitution.

« Commodore J. D. Elliott, commander.

“Lieutenants—J. B. Montgomery, F. Ellery, W. C. Nicholson, E. C. Rutledge, G. F Pearson, F. A. Neville, L. M. Powell.

“Surgeon, T. J. Boyd.

“Assistant Surgeons, I. Brinckerhoff, R. Woodworth.

“Purser—H. Eting.           Chaplain—J. Everett.

“Master—J. Ferguson.  Second Master—J. M. Berrien.

“Passed Midshipmen—J. F. Duncan, C. Steedman, J. W. Revere, J. W. Cooke, W. T. Muse,  J. L. Henderson.

“Midshipmen—G. T. Sinclair, G. W. Randolph, J. N. Maffitt, T. Oakes, B. F. Shattuck, W. S. Parkinson, E. C. Anderson, S. D. Trenchard, E. E. Rodgers, R. H. Jenkins, J. B. Lewis, T. S. Haggerty, R. H. Tilghman.

“Boatswain—W. Hart.  Carpenter—J. A. Dickson.

“Gunner—T. Ryley.   Sailmaker—N. C. L’Hommedieu. »  (Page 80.)

Number 11 (March 12, 1835)


    “The Constitution was towed out of Boston harbor by the steamboat Bangor, on Monday, 2d inst. and anchored inside of Sandy Hook on Saturday, the 7th.”  (Page 88.)

Number 12 (March 19, 1835)


 “…The Frigate Constitution was towed up to the Navy Yard at New York, by the steamboat American Eagle and Flushing [sic], on Wednesday the 12th; when opposite the battery she fired a salute.  On Sunday, morning the ship was towed down the harbor by two steamboats, and went to sea about 10 o’clock with a pleasant breeze.”  (Page 96.)

Number 13 (March 26, 1835)

            “Naval Forces of the Different Powers of the World…

Countries                      Liners  Frigates  Sloops etc.  Steamers   Total       


Great Britain              165      217         224         49       746

France                      39       51         213         10       333

Russia                      32       25         107          4       168

Ottoman Empire              18       24          90          0       132 

Holland                     12       33          56          2       103

Sweden and Norway           10       13         238          0       261

Spain                        1        3          30          0        34

Denmark                      4        7          14          0        25

Portugal                     4        6          37          2        49

Austria                      3        8          61          0        72

Sardinia & Two Sicilies      4        8          17          0        29

Greece                       1        2          25          2        30           

Popedom [sic]                0        0           8          0         8

Duke of Tuscany              0        0           1          0         1   

Prussia                      0        0           1          0         1 

United States                7       10          24          0        41 

                                                                                                                                             (Page 100.)

Number 24 (June 11, 1835)

“The frigate Constitution, Commodore Elliott, was off Havre on the 25th April, and after taking in water would sail in a few days on her return to the United States, with Mr. Livingston on board.”  (Page 192.)

Number 25 (June 18, 1835)


“It was rumored in Washington in the early part of the week, that the frigate Constitution arrived at New York on Friday, having on board Mr. Livingston and family; but the New York papers of Saturday are silent upon the subject, nor can we learn that the mail of Tuesday morning brought any confirmation of the rumor.

“The frigate may be hourly expected, as the English papers state that she sailed from Havre on the 5th May.”                      (Page 196.)

“The French papers brought by the late arrivals from Europe contain the following intelligence, which we hope may tend to soothe any irritability of feeling that may subsist between us and our former allies.

“The Journal of Cherbourg, of the 26th April, says: ‘Yesterday afternoon, at 4 o’clock, the civil, maritime, and military authorities of Cherbourg paid a visit on board the American frigate Constitution, which received them with a salute, which was returned by our batteries on shore.’…”                    (Page 197.)

Number 26 (June 25, 1835)

“The United States’ frigate Constitution, with Mr. Livingston on board, arrived at Plymouth, England, on the 13th May, bound to the United States.  She was to remain there a few days.”

“Liverpool, May 16.—The late ambassador from the United States to France, Mr. Livingston, is sojourning for a few days with his family at Plymouth.  His excellency arrived there on Wednesday, in the Constitution American frigate, fifty guns, 460 men, Captain Elliott, bound to the United States from Havre.

“The frigate fired a royal salute, which was answered by the San Josef guard-ship, Captain Falcon, C.B. the commander, having previously gone alongside the Constitution.  A royal salute was also fired from the batteries of the citadel in compliment to the American ambassador.

“The ladies of Mr. Livingston’s family have suffered much from sea sickness, and the honorable gentleman himself does not appear in good health.  The wind continues contrary, and it is to be hoped that, ere it proves favorable, for the Constitution to proceed, himself and companions will have received the advantage of repose and change of air.”                        (Page 208.)

Number 27 (July 2, 1835)


“The frigate Constitution arrived at…New York on the 23d June, with Mr. Livingston and family; all well.”  (Page 216.)

Number 28 (July 9, 1835)


“Mr. Livingston, before leaving New York, presented Commodore Elliott a gold box, as a return for attentions received wile a passenger in the frigate Constitution.  It is said to be a superb box, beautifully chased, with the Commodore's initials on the outer lid, and within, the inscription,

                                         ‘A Souvenir of the Constitution


                                           COMMODORE ELLIOTTT

                                                    From His Friend

                                        EDWARD LIVINGSTON.’”         (Page 220.)

     “Naval Academy.—The commissioned and warrant officers of the U. S. frigate Constitution held a meeting on the 20th June, while at sea on her return to the United States, for the purpose of concerting measures to effect the establishment of a Naval Academy.  Lieutenant John B. Montgomery was called to the chair, and Purser Henry Etting appointed Secretary.

"The preamble sets forth, that the officers have ever felt the most ardent desire to prosecute successfully the profession to which they are devoted: to advance the interests of the Navy, and to perpetuate the commercial prosperity of our common country, consigned in part to their safe-keeping: taught by the experience of the past, that neither industry nor talent can supply the advantage offered by early education, they are earnestly desirous of the means for securing to those who may enter the Navy hereafter: that they deplore the inadequacy of the existing system, to accomplish either the object of the Government, or to meet the wishes of the officers for professional instruction: that they believe a respectful representation of the anxious hopes which the entire Navy have ventured to indulge for so many years, and to  the consummation of which they look with the deepest interest, will receive the consideration to which so excellent an object is entitled, and that it will find from liberal authorities that indulgence which is ever accorded to generous aspirations and laudable exertions.  They have, therefore, unanimously resolved, That they deem education to be of peculiar importance to the sea officer; and that amid the progressive improvements in the arts and sciences which distinguish the present age, the military marine would be most conspicuous, if guided in its advance by the lights of education: That they look to the establishment of a naval school as the only means of imparting to the officers of the Navy, that elementary instruction and scientific knowledge, which has become almost indispensable at the present day to the military seaman: That from circumstances arising in part from professional causes, the schoolmasters on board our ships can rarely, if ever, impart such elementary or scientific knowledge, or advance the education of the navy officer; and that, if the office were abolished, no evil would result therefrom: That they believe the expense incurred by Government in providing schoolmasters for ships, and professors of mathematics for the junior officers of the Navy, would liberally sustain a scientific institution; and they would see, with pleasure, the same funds directed to the establishment and support of a naval school.

“A copy of the proceedings was directed to be furnished to the Secretary of the Navy, with a request that he will lend his countenance to the undertaking, and that he would lay the resolutions before the President.  Copies were also to be furnished to the chairmen of the Naval Committees in the House and Senate, to Commodore Elliott, and to Mr. Livingston; and forwarded to each naval station, squadron, and ship in commission, with a view to invoke the co-operation of officers belonging thereto.

“A committee of ten was appointed to take charge of the subject, and conduct it to its final disposition, with directions to ascertain and report to the Secretary of the Navy the probable annual expense of a naval school.  This committee consists of Lieutenant L. M. Powell, Surgeon T. J. Boyd, Passed Midshipmen W. Radford, C. Steedman, W. T. Muse, Midshipmen R. L. Tilghman, G. W. Randolph, F. S. Haggerty, F. P. Hoban, and J. B. Lewis.

“This is a very important movement, and exhibits a most commendable spirit.  The officers who have grown up with the Navy, sensibly feel the want of an early and thorough education, and they now offer their testimony in support of the advantages anticipated from the establishment of a naval academy.  Officers of other ships and stations will undoubtedly join in the recommendation, and should the design meet the concurrent support of the President and Secretary of the Navy, it will and must obtain the favorable consideration of Congress; when fortified by the united voices of the officers, public opinion will sanction the enactment by the National Legislature of a law for the establishment and liberal support of an academy.  This subject has hitherto had to contend with the too common and erroneous notion, that because the Navy had succeeded so well without an academy, it was wholly unnecessary.  Such an idea cannot be too strongly reprobated and discountenanced.  We hope a brighter era is now about to dawn upon our Navy, and that Congress will follow out the liberal disposition manifested in the law respecting pay, by providing for the mental improvement of the future protectors of our rights abroad, upon whom, whether in war or in peace, so much must always depend.”  (Page 220.)

Number 29 (July 16, 1835)


“The New York Gazette, speaking of the [4th of July] celebration in that city, says:-

“The U. S. Frigate Constitution, at anchor off the battery, was dressed in beautiful style with the American colors, and numerous private signals, and it was generally remarked that thee never was a handsomer display of bunting.  Her salutes at one o’clock, and at sundown, were fired with scientific precision.  The sound of her cannon reminded everybody of her victories, and the huzzaing for old ‘Ironsides’ thrilled every American bosom.

“In the evening, while on the battery, we were delighted with the taste with which the Constitution was illuminated, and with the fire-works let off from this noble ship.  The whole scene on the water was rendered completely enchanting, by the numerous well lighted steamboats gliding around the frigate, each exchanging rockets and huzzas with the generous souled tars on board.’”  (Page 228.)

Number 30 (July 23, 1835)


                                        “From the Maryland Republican.

                                                    "NAVAL ACADEMY

     “Mr. Editor:- It is with unalloyed satisfaction that I read the proceedings of the ‘commissioned and warrant officers of the frigate Constitution, relative to the Naval Academy,’   and the observations of the New York editor, by which they are accompanied.  Can stronger evidence of the necessity for such an institution be advanced, than is furnished by the declaration of the officers of the Constitution?  Can a more powerful appeal be made to Congress in the behalf of an academy than the desire expressed by officers to obtain that ‘scientific knowledge’ which is ‘indispensable to military seamen’?  I think not.  I have often reflected on the situation of midshipmen when afloat, and have always arrived at the opinion, that at such periods it is impossible for them to bend their minds or devote their time to useful study.  When not actively employed in the discharge of their duties, or taking the repose necessary for the support of nature, where are they?  Why crowded together in the steerage, where the bare circumstance of their being collected leads to an indulgence of that levity, which is inseparable from youth, and which is subversive of every disposition to improvement.  When we look on, or think of this, this class of officers, the majority of us are too apt to view them as humble reefers, and nothing more.  We forget that they are young aspirants who are laboring to qualify themselves for commands, that they may become the supporters of the honor and rights of the country.  Their purpose is noble, and the National Legislature is bound by patriotism to encourage and foster it.  There is only one effectual way of doing this: and that is by the establishment of a naval academy.  At such an institution there would be no ship’s duty to call the midshipman from his studies, and he would have room to pursue them retired from the mischievous, trifling, or worthless, should any such by chance or partiality make their way into it.  At such an institution he would not only acquire a knowledge of those sciences, which it is necessary to understand to make him a skillful navigator, but he would acquire a habit of reading, a habit of thinking, and a thirst after information, that would be attended by a mental improvement, which future events might place him in situations to employ to the honor and profit of the country.  English naval officers have not only had to fight battles, but they have had to dictate and negotiate treaties; and may not some of the striplings who now spread themselves on the yards of our men of war, in the course of time, be called on to do the same things for this country.  Where is the wise man, who can see so far into the future, as to warrant him in giving a negative answer to this question?  There is another happy effect which would result from a naval academy; youths who are too stupid to receive scholastic instruction, and too vicious to be kept at home, could no longer be pushed into the service by every father who happened to enjoy court favor.  The examination which would precede admission into the academy, would form an insurmountable barrier to their entrance into the service, and the national honor would be saved from the danger of being exposed to the keeping of the indiscrete and incompetent.

“The arguments which could be adduced in favor of the establishment of a naval academy are numerous and powerful; but it is altogether useless to argue for the promotion of a measure, which everybody admits would be productive of wholesome effects to the nation; and which there is no serious diversity of opinion concerning, further than in relation to the place at which the academy ought to be placed.  The idea of connecting it with the Military Academy at West Point, has been suggested; but that is absurd, and will never answer; to fix it there would make both establishments unpopular and sink them both—there would be an endless warfare between students in the two institutions.  Where then, it will be asked, is the most eligible place to establish a naval academy?  The question is readily answered—Annapolis is that place.  It stands in a central State: is but a few hours’ journey from the seat of the National Government; it is healthful, and except from the temptations to vice, which abound in larger cities.  Superadded to these considerations, the deep and beautiful Severn, whose waves wash the northern limits of the town, presents a sheet of water, on which vessels might be used to afford students an opportunity of making themselves acquainted with much of the practical part of their profession.  But why should I dwell on the superior advantages, which invite the planting of a naval academy at Annapolis?  They are known of every intelligent man who has visited the place; and it is trusted, will not be forgotten by our Senators and Representatives in Congress, when the proposition to create a naval academy, is submitted to that body.

A Friend To The Navy

“The following abstract from the proceedings and remarks referred to by our correspondent, in the foregoing article, we had extracted from the Naval Chronicle, before the proceedings themselves came to hand.  There can be no question, as our correspondent justly observes, of the superior advantages possessed by Annapolis, as a site for a naval school.  The North already enjoys one national institution.  Maryland unites pretensions as a central situation, and as bordering as closely to the south, as a due consideration for as exemption from autumnal diseases will allow—open to the most beautiful and spacious bay in the world, on the one hand, whose bosom is continually whitened with the inspiring sight of the busy shipping, employed in the commerce of the Chesapeake—and on the other, within two hours’ travel of the seat of General Government—under the very eye, as it were, of a superintending Congress, and at the very spot which is destined by its position to become the sea port of the capital.  That these advantages are appreciated by scientific officers both of our navy and army, we have had many positive proofs.  That they will be over looked when the time comes for a selection, we can not allow ourselves to believe.—Editor.”  (Page 236.)

“Commodores Chauncey and Morris, Commissioners of the Navy, being in New York, visited the frigate Constitution, on Friday 10th instant.”  (Page 240.)

Number 31 (July 30, 1835)


“Fatal Accident.— At New York, on Thursday morning, while some of the sailors on board the frigate Constitution were at work on the foretop, a block accidentally fell upon the head of one of them, John Brown, a captain of said top, who was instantly killed.  The remains of the deceased were conveyed to the navy yard by a procession of boats, where he was interred with the honors of his station.   (Page 245.)

Number 32 (August 6, 1835)


“From the New York Gazette.

     “Complimentary.—There is nothing so well calculated to cement a friendly feeling between nations as courtesy between naval and military officers whenever and wherever they meet.

     “We are led to this remark, says the New York Gazette, in consequence of a conversation with one of the officers recently returned home in the U. S. frigate Constitution.  He informs us, that during the few days they were at Plymouth, the officers of the ship had daily invitations to dine with the British naval and army officers on that station.  They accepted the invitations several times, and were not only treated with marked cordiality and politeness, but their toasts were highly complimentary to our government, and its distinguished officer…”  (Page 251.)

“The New York Courier has some judicious remarks on the importance of establishing a Naval School.  They were called forth by resolutions recently adopted by the officers of the frigate Constitution, strongly recommending such an institution.  We are glad that the subject is taken up so earnestly in the right quarter.  The recommendation of the officers, who feel the want of scientific education, is the most effectual mode of engaging the attention of the nation to the subject and of getting it brought before Congress.  The supplying of the great want—which can only be supplied by a naval school on a liberal scale, like the military school at West Point, is all that is needed to make our navy complete.  Our great commerce supplies the primary material, sailors, and our officers are full of zeal and pride in their profession, being animated not only by warm national feeling, but also by glorious recollections.  We trust that the subject will be taken up at the next session of Congress in the spirit which it merits, as being of national importance.—Baltimore American.  (Page 253.) 

“The frigate Constitution will sail from New York; under the command of Commodore Elliott, in the course of the present month, for the Mediterranean.  (Page 256.)

Number 33 (August 13, 1835)


“Master commandant S. H. Stringham has been ordered to take passage in the frigate Constitution for command of the U. S. ship John Adams, now in the Mediterranean; Captain Conner, her present commander, having been promoted.

“On the arrival of the Constitution the Delaware 74 will return to the United States.  (Page 264.)

Number 34 (August 20, 1835)

                                                “NAVAL ACADEMY

     “In contemplating the advantages likely to arise from the establishment of a naval school, (similar to that for the advancement of those for the army,) in some one of our many navy yards, we cannot but hope for the future advancement of our service such measures, which may be advantageous, may be taken by our friends in Congress during the next session to secure so great an acquisition to our institutions.

“This grand bulwark of defence [sic] to our liberties and laws must call forth, from true Americans, encomiums justly merited; and when we find so many who are anxious for its advancement, we are satisfied that but one feeling actuates the expressions of our countrymen.  A naval college for the education of aspirants must appear to all an object not only desirable in itself, but one that will secure to our navy, officers of distinguished abilities, and to our countrymen, perfect security against invasion at home, and losses on the ocean.  Let the department, to whom we are principally indebted for all benefits, only urge the necessity of such a step, and those who are now ‘unskilled in naval tactics’ will, in the course of their probation, be competent, at their graduation from such a seminary, to take charge of the deck of any of our floating emblems of liberty.  Does not the navy, as well as the army, deserve such an institution?  Yes!  Every liberal mind will admit that, above all others, our navy should be possessed of such men who will prove as our forefathers, true guardians of liberty, and who won’t give up the ship.

                                                                             LAWRENCE”   (Page 271.)

Number 35 (August 27, 1835)


“The United States frigate Constitution, bearing the broad pennant of Commodore J. D. Elliott, sailed from New York on Wednesday, 19th instant, for the Mediterranean.  So many changes in her officers have taken place since her return to New York, that we publish the list entire…

Jesse Duncan Elliott, Esq., Commander of the Mediterranean Squadron

Lieutenants—William Boerum, Geo. F. Pearson, Fred. A. Neville, John Colhoun, James M. Watson.

Henry A. Steele, Acting Sailing Master; Henry Darcantel, 2d do.

J. L. C. Hanly, 1st. Lieut. of  Marines.

Thomas J. Boyd, Surgeon of the fleet in the Mediterranean.

John N. Hambleton, Purser.

Assistant Surgeons.—Robert Woodworth, Victor L. Godon.

Commodore’s Secretary—Jesse E. Dow.

Passed Midshipmen—Harry P. T. Wood, Percival Drayton, B. W. Hunter, Wm. T. Muse, Chas. Steedman, Wm. S. Ringgold, Jos. W. Revere, Edward Middleton, Montgomery Lewis, George L. Selden, Charles C. Barton, James W. Cooke.

Midshipmen—George W. Randolph, George T. Sinclair, Chas. Hunter, Wm. Ronckendorff, Fred. A. Bacon, Fras. D. Haggerty, John N. Maffitt, Henry P. Robertson, C. E. Fleming, E. C. Anderson, Eugene E. Rodgers, A. H. Jenkins, Chas. Wager.

John C. Holland, Captain’s Clerk.

Robert Whittaker, Boatswain.

Thomas Ryley, Gunner.

Nath. C. L’Hommedieu, Sailmaker.

Francis Sager, Carpenter.

Edwin A. Teagle, Purser’s Clerk.


Master Commandant—Silas H. Stringham, to take command of the John Adams.

Lieutenant—John A. Davis, for the John Adams.

For the schooner Shark

Ebenezer Ridgeway, Lieutenant Commandant.

Lieutenants.—B. J. Totten, Thomas W. Brent,.

Robert J. Dodd, Surgeon.

D. Fauntleroy, Purser.

Daniel Egbert, Pass. Ass. Surgeon.

Chas. Haywood, Passed Midshipman.

Joseph Hoban, Captain’s Clerk… “      (Page 280.)


Number 36 (September 3, 1835)


“Sailing of Old Ironsides, And Fortunate Escape.—On Tuesday afternoon, a large number of officer, and men, among them five or six lieutenants, belonging to the frigate, went down in the steamboat Hercules to embark.  On approaching the ship, near the quarantine, the steamboat stopped, and a small boat was sent from the frigate—the officers and men immediately jumped into the boat with their luggage, when the boat took a sheer under the guard of the steamboat, filled, and immediately upset.  Great alarm prevailed on board of the steamboat and frigate for the safety of those who were struggling with a strong current and a high sea.  Boats were sent from the ship, and benches, oars, &c. were thrown over, and every effort made to rescue the men.  After much exertion they were all picked up and reached the frigate in safety, but with the loss of most of the luggage.—N. Y. Commercial.   (Page 286.)


Number 41 (October 8, 1835)

“Frigate Constitution, Com. Elliott, which sailed from New York on the 19th August for the Mediterranean, was on the 3d of September in latitude 35-22N, and longitude 29-52 -- all well.”                   (Page 328.)

Number 42 (October 15, 1835)


“In Westchester county, N. Y., Lt. Henry J. Auchmuty, of the Navy, aged 31              years.”                                    (Page 336.)

Number 43 (October 22, 1835)


“Extract of a letter to the Secretary of the Navy from Commodore Jesse D. Elliott, dated

U. S. Ship Constitution

Gibraltar, Sept. 11, 1835

“I have the honor to inform you that the Constitution arrived and anchored at this port, this afternoon, after a passage of twenty-three days from Sandy Hook.

“This ship sustains her high character for sailing.--  The officers and crew are well, and all is peace and harmony on board.”        (Page 344.)

Number 44 (October 29, 1835)


Excerpts from a Congressional memorandum:

Thanks of Congress presented to the following persons:

1805, March 3, to Commodore Preble, the officers and crews of his                                                           


Medals voted by Congress to officers, for good conduct, &c.:

1805, March 3, to Commodore Edward Preble

1813, January 29, to Captain Isaac Hull and commissioned officers of                                                                                     

his ship.

      1813, January 29, to the nearest male relative of Lieutenant Bush.

           1813, March 3, to Captain William Bainbridge and commissioned                                         

                       officers of frigate Constitution.

1816, February 22, to Captain Charles Stewart and commissioned  officers of frigate                                                     


Swords voted by Congress for gallant conduct, &c.1805, March 3, to each     commissioned officer and midshipman who distinguished themselves in Commodore Preble’s attack on Tripoli.      (Page 346.)


Number 47 (November 19, 1835)


“The U. S. Frigate Constitution, commodore Elliott, left Gibraltar for Mahon on the 18th Sept.                  (Page 376.)


Number 50 (December 10, 1835)



At Upper Marlboro, Md., on the 3d inst. at the seat of David Cranford, Esq., by the Rev. Mr. Swan, Dr, John A. Kearney, Surgeon, U. S. Navy, to Miss Mary M. Forrest, youngest daughter of the late Richard Forrest, Esq.”    (Page 400.)

Volume II


Number 8 (February 25, 1836)

Midshipman Charles Hunter returned to the U. S. from Constitution on board Delaware, arriving in Hampton Roads on 16 Feb., having sailed from Mahon on 18 Nov 1835.    (Page 126.)

Number 9 (March 3, 1836)

“The U. S. frigate Constitution arrived at Smyrna on the 21st of November.  The Shark had arrived a few days previous.  Both vessels were there on the 11th Dec.”  (Page 144.)

Number 10 (March 10, 1836)



Number 11 (March 17, 1836)

“The U. S. frigates Potomac, from Cadiz, and Constitution, from Smyrna, sailed ` from Gibraltar 4th Feb,”   (Page 176.)

Number 12 (March 24, 1836)


    “We invite attention to the following extract of a letter from an officer in the Navy.  The conduct of Commodore Elliott cannot but excite the indignation of every friend to humanity.  Under the circumstances, it was brutal and unmanly in the extreme.  He could not have treated a dog with less feeling than he did young Barton.  Lock-jaw might have ensued, or amputation been rendered necessary to the unfortunate young officer.

“Extract of a letter from an Officer in the Navy, dated

Smyrna, Dec. 5, 1835.

“Passed Midshipman Charles C. Barton was severely wounded in the leg, in a duel with Passed Midshipman P. T. Wood.  The quarrel, I believe, is one of old standing but brought to this unhappy termination, by Mr. Barton being ordered to the schooner Shark, where Mr. Wood was, who refused to mess with him, and the rest of the mess followed his example.  This together with other insults, left Mr. B. no other recourse but to call him out, when, after receiving two fires, his pistol missing fire both times, he had his leg fractured by the second shot.  I am happy to add, that Mr. Barton’s conduct on the field, evinced that coolness and determination which always emanate from a good cause; and every person acquainted with the circumstances are of the opinion of myself, that the course he pursued could not be avoided without dishonor.  His second, and the surgeon who attended, deemed it necessary for him to be taken on board the Constitution, to have the ball extracted, rather than to the schooner.  He was accordingly carried on board, and the ball extracted with no difficulty.  During this time, Commodore Elliott absent from the ship, and as soon as he returned the thing was of course reported by the first Lieutenant.  You cannot judge out surprise, to hear the order given ‘that Mr. Barton should be immediately taken on board the Shark;’ this order being issued without knowing what the consequence might be.  Dr. Boyd, the surgeon of the ship, immediately waited upon him, and protested in the strongest terms against the inhuman order; but he would not be heard by the Commodore, who said he must go, and he ‘would take the responsibility.’  He was, therefore, hoisted over the side, and sent back to the schooner.  You can imagine what his sufferings must have been, laboring under the excitement of opium, and such inhuman treatment.  Through Dr. Boyd’s intercession, he was removed on shore yesterday, where he will receive all the attention and care which he requires in his present condition.—Philadelphia Inquirer.”    (Page 188.)



                                                                      “U. S. Frigate Constitution

                                                                       Gibraltar Bay, Feb. 1st. 1836


“To the Editor of the New Castle, Del., Gazette.—

Sir—This ship arrived here on the 28th ult. 23 days from Smyrna, communicating off Malta, and notwithstanding we have not a person sick on the list, are refused pratique (liberty) as being from one of the seats of the Plague.  We left Mahon on the 1st of last November, Athens on the 17th of last month, Syra on the 20th, and Smyrna on the 5th ultimo, remaining at that place only seven weeks.  For want of time I am unable to give you even a brief sketch of our interesting cruise, as we get under weigh in an hour or two for Tangier and Cadiz…

“Lieut. Wm. Boerum, late 1st Lieut. of this ship, has been appointed to command the Shark in place of Lieutenant Ridgeway, who retires in ill health.  Henry Darcantel to be 1st Master, vice. H. A. Steele promoted to Lieutenant, P. Drayton 2d Master.  Midshipman Ronckendorff has been ordered to the Shark, and passed Midshipman Barton was left in Smyrna, having been wounded in a duel, and unable to leave the shore.  Principals and Seconds are arrested, and will be so until the pleasure of the Navy Department is known.  The practice is odious, no doubt, but one of which the Navy cannot dispense.  It is the only necessary evil we cannot throw aside.  Crew and officers enjoy unusual health.

“In haste, very respectfully,                                         A.

“P.S.  The Potomac is at Cadiz, John Adams at Madeira, and Shark daily expected with our letters and papers from Mahon.  Until we entered this port, not a line had been received from the United States, since our leaving, and now but one or two have been gratified with the reception of such welcome messengers from home.  We are subject to many hard knocks from fortune, and this disappointment is among them.  None, however, can compare with that which now presents itself—‘That we are without the least hope of war,’ and monotonous scenes of everyday life, through which we have passed, many of us, since our boyhood.

                                     « Yours, &c.                           A. »  (Page 190.)



“Captain Wright, of the Brig Volant, arrived at Philadelphia from Leghorn, states that on the 4th of February, the U. S. frigate Constitution, Com. Elliott, in company with the U. S. ship Potomac, spoke him while laying by back of the Rock of Gibraltar, and sent his boat on board with several packages for President Jackson, and requesting to report that the Constitution was 25 days from Smyrna, bound for Tangier, the Moors having made some disturbance.  The whole U. States squadron were expected in a few days to join them at Tangier.  The purport of the disturbances did not ascertain.  Left the Straits on the 5th of February, in company with the Constitution and Potomac, and saw them enter the harbor of Tangier at & A.M.”    (Pages 190-1.)



Number 19 (May 12, 1836)

“Correspondence of the Boston Morning Post.

                                                                                           "Malta, Feb. 9, 1836.

“Arrival of the Frigate Constitution at Malta of H.B.M. Steamer Hermes, with Commodore Hull on board—meeting between this officer and Capt. Dacres, now in command of the ‘Edinburgh,’ seventy-four.

“At daylight, on the morning of the eleventh of January, from the observatory of the Palace, a large American ship was seen lying off the harbor of Valletta, under easy sail, with the ensign hoisted, and the flag of the Commodore of this station at the fore-royalmasthead.

“It was not long before she was made out as the Constitution, with Commodore Elliott on board, which was not altogether uninteresting, although it might not have been at all agreeable news to Capt. J. R. Dacres, who is now in our port, in command of the Edinburgh seventy-four.

“No American man-of-war has arrived at our island for a length of time, which has created so much interest among the English commanders, as this ship of which we are now speaking.  So much, indeed, did she excite crowds collected on the heights of La Valletta, and on the terraces of the different buildings, to view ‘Old Ironsides’ slowly tacking to the westward—both the wind and current being strongly against the course whither she was bound.

“There is no better position for observing the ships which may be in sight off Malta, than on the ramparts of St. Elmo, and it was on this spot that a British Post-Captain was seen with his spy-glass, attentively gazing at the ‘Yankee Frigate,’ which, as was truly remarked by him, is the pride of our nation, and as fine a ship of her class as could be seen in any navy.

“Not many days after the departure of the Constitution from this place, and while the recollection of her visit was fresh in the minds of those who had been to see her, His B. M. Steamer Hermes arrived from Gibraltar, and among the passengers was Commodore Hull.

“Hardly had the ship come to anchor, before Capt. Dacres manned his boat, and called to see his old friend, ‘whom he had formerly known in Boston.’  Their meeting was a very pleasant one; and Capt. Dacres has, since the liberation of the Commodore from quarantine, been almost daily to visit him, carrying his brother commanders, at all times, to introduce them.  If the English are of a proud spirit, they have this natural trait of character, that whenever they see a brave man, they respect him; and it matters but little whether they were the once defeated or not, they still show the same attentions, and pay the same deference to such a character, whether it is found in their countrymen, among their friends, or in an enemy.

“The truth of this remark can be proved by the treatment which Commodore Hull has received since his arrival in our city.  Rear Admiral Sir Thomas Briggs informed the writer that he respected Commodore Hull for his courage as shown to Europe, and should take the first opportunity to call upon him.  This he has done with his family, and on these two distinguished officers comparing notes, it was found they were both on this station, and in command of men of war, upwards of thirty years since, and at the time when we were engaged in the Tripoline war.

“Among the distinguished men now here, we may name Vice Admiral Josias Rowley, who is in command of the English fleet; the Hon. Capt. Percy, of the Canopas; Capt. Martin, flag captain of the Caledonian; Capt. McKerby, of the Vernon frigate, known as the one-armed captain of Trafalgar, a relation of Capt. Dacres; Sir Frederic Hankey, Chief Secretary to Government, and indeed at this moment acting Governor of the Island; all of whom, but more particularly the last, have been very attentive to Commodore Hull and his family during their tarry among them.

“Sir Frederic Hankey took the Commodore to the Garrison Club, where are enrolled the names of all the distinguished persons who have passed through this Island since it was a British possession; and also on  the pages of the catalogue will be found the names of several Royal Dukes, and also many of the distinguished of the European nobility and gentry.  Commodore Hull was made an honorary member while a resident in La Valletta, and it gives me much pleasure to state as a countryman, that this gentleman has received all the attention which it was in the power of those in office to show him.  And furthermore, it is with much gratification I am enabled to state, that Capt. J. R. Dacres has always, previous to the arrival of Commodore Hull, and since, spoken of him in the highest terms, which may serve to correct the erroneous impression prevalent in America during the last war, that after the heat of the action had passed away, there always had existed a coolness between the commander of the Guerriere and his powerful adversary of the Constitution.  Capt. Dacres was evidently much chagrined at his capture—he feels it to this day, and probably may never entirely recover from the mortification caused by the result of the action between the two ships, -- he is, however, a brave man, of a jovial character, liked by his officers, popular with his equals, and last not least, a friend to the Bostonians, and a lover of their country.  He never lets an opportunity pass, without mentioning the hospitality he received when a visitor and resident in the capital of New England.   *     *     *     *

“I do not hesitate to say, that there is no frigate in our service, which will create, on  her arrival, half the sensation in our city,, as the ship of which we are now speaking.  This remark will shortly be verified to our numerous countrymen on board, as I understand that, ere long, it is the intention of Commodore Elliott to visit our island, and with the American squadron, to remain a short period anchored in our port.”            (Pages 292-3.)


Number 20 (May 19, 1836)


“Sword Manufactory.—The only establishment of this sort in  the United States, we understand, is the Ames’s at Cabotville, in Springfield, Mass., where all the swords of the army and navy are now made…”       (Page 318.)

Number 21 (May 26, 1836)


“Frigate Constitution, from Lisbon, was seen off Malaga, on the 15th April, steering E.”             (Page 336.)

Number 22 (June 2, 1836)


“Frigate Constitution, Com. Elliott, sailed for Gibraltar, 19th April, but not being able to enter the mole, bore away for Mahon; was Gibraltar, 21 April.” (Page 352.)


Number 24 (June 16, 1836)

“The frigate Constitution sailed from Gibraltar May 1, for Malaga and Mahon…”     (Page 364.) 

Volume III



Number 4 (July 28, 1836)

“Frigates Constitution and Potomac, ship John Adams, and schr. Shark, sailed from Toulon on the 1st June, for Naples.”     (Page 63.)

Number 5 (August 4, 1836)


“From the United States Gazette.

“Noble Conduct of an American Merchant, to a Wounded Officer of the U. S. Mediterranean Squadron.

“Mr. Editor:- In February last, the journals of this city published an account of the desperate wound received by passed Midshipman Barton, in a duel on the 1st Dec., at Smyrna.  At the time Mr. Barton was so fortunate as to fall under the professional care of our distinguished fleet surgeon, Dr. Boyd, who extracted the ball in a flattened mass, from the back part of the leg, and after a most kind and resolute effort for his future safety, left him on shore on the 5th of January, in the care of a skillful European surgeon, resident in Smyrna.  The skill and conduct of Dr. Boyd, before sailing with the squadron, laid the foundation of the result, which should lead us never to despair of a limb.  The extract below conveys the gratifying account that Mr. Barton’s leg (in jeopardy at one time of amputation from the wound, and other circumstances not now necessary to be mentioned,) [sic] has at length been saved, and not only so, but saved in its entire length and straightness, so that, after a few months, no lameness will remain.

“From the noble hospitality and attention, shown by Griffith Stith, Esq., and his amiable family, in receiving Mr. Barton in his forlorn condition, into the bosom of his private family, thus assuaging his sufferings by the immeasurably inexpressible value of disinterested friendship and female sympathy and succour in a foreign land.  For such conduct, , the friends of Mr. Barton beg leave thus publicly, to express their deep sense of grateful acknowledgement—publicly, because there is a public view of it.  Those who, next to Mr. Barton himself, would feel and appreciate this humane and feeling kindness, have only to say, that such conduct can find no adequate return by the language of thanks, however expressive.  Let anyone, deeply interested by ties of relationship or friendship, or any more tender feeling, in any naval officer, left in a distant foreign port like Smyrna, wounded, alone, unknown but by his disaster and his uniform, imagine the circumstances as if they involved his own feelings and his own friends, then will the heart be found to respond in imagination, in such a way as cannot be portrayed by any words the tongue can utter, or the pen indite.

“Mr. Griffith Stith, is an American merchant (from Baltimore, I believe) at present, and for several years past, a resident in Smyrna.  I learn from naval officers who have enjoyed his hospitality in that port, that his urbanity and kindness to them and others, has already often received their thanks and respect.  I consider that the conduct of this gentleman, is not only to be viewed in its individual aspect of interest with all due praise, but as redounding to the American character abroad, in the eyes of foreigners. I feel assured, that such is the tone of feeling of naval officers on such an occasion (for they are peculiarly sensitive to the character and estimation of their countrymen abroad) that they will take pride as a body, in learning the substantial sympathy evinced by this gentleman to one of their corps.

“Mr. Barton also speaks in one of his letters in grateful language of Surgeon Evans, of his Britannic Majesty’s ship Tribune, his consulting surgeon with Dr. Marpurgo, the resident surgeon of Smyrna, of whom he speaks below.  The professional courtesy of English naval surgeons, in absence of our own, is no new occurrence.  Other instances have occurred in which it has conspicuously and beneficially appeared.  It has been as it now is, in the present instance, applauded and respected.

Respectfully yours,                                                    B.

“Extract of a letter, dated Smyrna, April 9th, 1836.

“My leg is slowly but surely recovering.  It was broken athwartships in three places.  Eleven pieces of bone have been extracted, not however of a large size.  I had been one hundred and eighteen days in one position, when quite a large portion of the ball was cut out (this was imbedded amidst the comminuted fragments of the large bone, where Dr. Boyd cut out the main portion of the ball from the back of the leg the day I was wounded, which I presume had passed through the bone, shattering it, and leaving some lead behind.)  An orifice three quarters of an inch deep still remains, it being now one hundred and thirty one days since the hurt.  My surgeon who has built upon the skillful foundation of Dr. Boyd, has not only saved the limb, but has preserved its length and straightness.  He is quite an enthusiast, and says it is not worth while to save a life, and have a crooked leg.  I beg you to do me the favor to write a letter of thanks in your warmest terms, to Griffin Stith, Esq. an American merchant in whose house I am residing.  He has overwhelmed me with kindness and attention; and his amiable and estimable wife, and his beautiful daughter you could not say too much.  The gratitude of a poor isolated being like myself, though my heart swells with it to overflowing, is far too small an offering for a family such as this.


Number 6 (August 11, 1836)


“Frigates Constitution and Potomac, and ship John Adams, arrived at Leghorn, 17th June.:                               (Page 93.)

Number 7 (August 18, 1836)


“Commodore Elliott and Passed Midshipman Barton.- Having some time ago, at the request of a correspondent, published a letter, censuring the conduct of Commodore Elliott towards Passed Midshipman Barton, after he was wounded in the duel with Mr. Wood, we feel bound in justice to publish the following defence [sic] of Commodore Elliott from the New York Times.

“The American squadron in the Mediterranean has for the last eight or nine months been kept in a state of more constant and useful activity than it has been known before for years.  Instead of lying in listless idleness during the winter at Mahon, with the want of occupation driving the younger officers and men to dissipation, it has been in almost continual motion, visiting all parts of that sea, with one or more vessels looking in at every principal port every few weeks, and by this exhibiting itself constantly, sustaining the influence of our government agents, maintaining the security of our commerce and the respect due to our flag.  Incessant attention has been paid to the health and comforts of the men, the ships are kept in the highest state of discipline, and the squadron is probably more efficient for its strength than it has been before since we had one in those seas.  The commander is, in the words of a letter before us, ‘wonderfully alive to the interests of his country; he never tires, nor allows an opportunity of promoting them to escape.  The strong feeling of prejudice that existed against him when he took the command, has been entirely changed, by his high-minded, liberal course, and more than one of these officers who at first declared that they would leave the squadron as soon as they could, now say they will apply for his ship when he changes his flag to the North Carolina.’  His care for the morals and improve of the younger officers has been incessant, and he has taken much pains to prevent all dissipation, above all to discountenance dueling.  His orders on the latter subject have from the first been strict and judicious, and strictly enforced.  This, duty and the rules of the service required.

“We speak this on the testimony of officers, both those who were friends of the commander, and those who were not, and we feel the firmest conviction of the accuracy of these statements.  We take this occasion to make them, because a news series is now opened of those malignant newspaper attacks upon that officer, prompted by personal and political spite, that we had occasion to notice last year.  The course he found himself compelled to take in reference to a duel between two midshipmen at Smyrna is made the theme of them, and coarse and abusive epithets seem likely to be exhausted on him.  Brutality, cowardice, meanness of spirit, cruelty, tyranny, &c., are imputed we see in one article alone in the Courier & Enquirer.  It is but justice to make the facts in that case known, and the public may then judge how far censure is due to the commander.

“Duelling was most strictly forbidden in the squadron, as the laws require.  The Shark needed a midshipman, and one was detached to her from the Constitution—Mr. Wood.  Mr. Barton, of the latter vessel, had a former quarrel with Wood, and now renewed it, prevented his being received into the mess, and determined to drive him out the ship, or out of the service, ultimately forced him in the most tyrannical manner into a duel, Wood having avoided it as long as possible.  Barton was wounded in the lower part of the leg, and instead of being taken to his own vessel, as he should have been, was carried without orders or permission, to the frigate, where, at the intercession of the surgeon, the first lieutenant reluctantly admitted him on board until the commodore, who was ashore, should return.

“The case presented to that officer must then have been this: a midshipman, inimical to another, resolves to drive him from the ship to which they belong, and at length forces him into a duel, in open and daring violation and the standing and special regulations; the aggressor is wounded, is brought for his greater comfort to the flag ship.  What was the commodore to do?  To permit him to remain there would be to sanction his conduct, to offer a premium for dueling, to invite neglect of orders and discipline.  On the other hand the surgeon declares that it may be dangerous to remove him.  The commodore directs that he be removed to his own ship, lying close by—and when permission is asked afterwards to take him ashore, he grants it.  This is a just statement of the case—and these are the facts upon which all the abuse of the Courier is founded.  Now let every fair man judge for himself whether the commodore could or ought to have done otherwise than he did, and whether there was any thing of cruelty, tyranny, &c., in his course.  For our parts, we think he would be unworthy of his commission, of his present important trust, if he had not been capable of lending countenance to such conduct as marked this case, or overlooking such a violation of order and discipline.

“We have no will to censure the course of Barton; we regret the suffering which he brought upon himself, and we are inclined to look upon it as sufficient retribution; we may rejoice too at the generous hospitality that was shown him. That was a matter of course however, among the American and European residents of Smyrna, and as to any peculiar hardship in his case, we cannot see it.  He was attended for thirty-five days, until all difficulty was over, by the fleet surgeon; that he was left at Smyrna was a kindness, as the ship was far less comfortable, and for the rest, he had but an ordinary gunshot wound to endure.  We publish cheerfully the letters below, bearing testimony to the noble kindness of a Mr. Stith, and we regret that the political and personal enemies of Commodore Elliott have made Mr. Barton’s case an occasion for renewing their calumnies upon that officer, and thus forced out an exposition of the circumstances which otherwise would certainly have been withheld.—New York Times…….”


“The explanation given in this paper, a day or two ago of the affair between Midshipmen Barton and Wood at Smyrna, and of the proceedings of the Commodore in relation to it, which have been blamed as harsh and improper, was possibly sufficient to satisfy every fair observer of the injustice of that censure.  We should therefore not advert to the subject again, but that we have received some express testimony relating to it, with a request that it should be given to the public.  It is contained in a letter from an officer of high standing and character, who joined the squadron since the occurrence in question, who is a well known and universally respected in this city, and whose name, though we do not insert it here, is at the service of any who choose to inquire for it.  It will be seen that the conduct of the Commodore, so far from being ‘cruel, tyrannical, brutal, &c.’ as the Courier has described it, was particularly kind and generous: and we trust that the paper, having made such imputations, will satisfy itself of the authenticity of the following indication, and lay it before its readers.

“It is proper to state in addition to what is given below, which we do on other authority, that the request of the fleet surgeon to have Mr. Barton on board the flagship was made in order that he might attend him the more conveniently.  It could not have been from any danger in which the patient stood; gunshot wounds in the lower part of the leg are not very serious though they may be long in healing.

*    *    *    *    *    * -- “Both before and since leaving the United States I have seen strictures in the newspapers upon Commodore Elliott in relation to the affair between passed midshipmen Barton and Wood.  I was determined that whenever I joined the Constitution, I would enquire into the truth of the story in order to satisfy my own mind, and find the result as follows:

‘I hope, my dear Sir, that a love for candor and truth will induce you to correct the aspersions which have recently been published, and have given an undue consequence to the transaction.    *    *    *    *    *. 


By some management with a launch officer, the parties got on shore, the meeting took place, and Mr. Barton as you know was wounded.  By the advice of his attending surgeon he was brought alongside the flag ship and admitted at the Doctor’s solicitation, although at first refused by the 1st Lieutenant.  On the Commodore’s return on board, the affair was reported to him, when he ordered Mr. Barton to return to his own vessel, being determined to discountenance those proceedings among his young officers—particularly upon slight and trivial grounds.  The fleet surgeon was informed, that it was impossible Mr. Barton could remain on board the flag-ship, but that if he could not be comfortable on board his own vessel, he might be taken on shore, which was accordingly done, using for that purpose the largest and best boat belonging to the ship, in order that he might suffer no inconvenience from the removal.  A man from the schooner was sent ashore to attend him, and the fleet surgeon requested to visit him as long as the ship remained in port.  The Commodore thought from the nature of the wound that a long and tedious confinement was unavoidable, and a ship of war was no fit place for a sick man, the vessel too, being under the momentary expectation of going to sea.  Every article belonging to the surgical department of the schooner, that was requested for his use, was sent him, and in fact every attention paid him, that could in any manner relieve his situation.  Two months’ pay in advance was left him with a letter of credit upon the schooner, and he was placed under the care of Mr. Offley, the American consul—a personal and valued friend of he Commodore; with an excellent surgeon to attend him until the schooner should return and take him on board.  As I said before, the Commodore is determined to discountenance duels in the squadron, particularly among the midshipmen, whose guardian he looks upon himself to be, having the care of their morals and feeling a deep interest in their future welfare, and although he discountenances duels among ourselves originating in trivial causes—he is the last man in my opinion that would wish an officer to yield a point of honor, but would rather assist him in maintaining it.  As you will perceive, the charge of harsh treatment towards Mr. Barton is not, nor can it be, sustained.

     ‘In no ship or squadron that I have seen or heard of, have I known more indulgence extended to the officers, giving them every opportunity to visit foreign places, and travelling, and if they choose, to improve their minds by study.  There are at this moment four of our officers traveling in France and Spain, but expected to join us in a few days by the Shark daily expected from Marseilles, viz., Dr. Woodworth, passed midshipman Drayton, midshipmen Middleton and Jenkins.  Although the officers are allowed all proper indulgences, the Commodore is sensitive to all infringements of duty or discipline.  There never was a ship probably, in better order or discipline than the Constitution, and the other vessels comprising the squadron are all in excellent order.  This seems to be universally admitted wherever we go.  Make use of the information I give you, as you please—although I would not like my name to figure in print exactly, yet I hold myself responsible for its truth.’”—N. Y. Times, July 26.

“ From the New York Times, July 30.

“The following letter comes to us without the name of the writer, but that does not prevent our readily giving it place, the rather as we have found reason to suspect that his statement may be correct as to our transposing the names of the parties.

“Our remark that we were unwilling to censure the course of Mr. Barton referred to the act which led to his transfer from his own ship to the Shark, and not to his controversy with Mr. Wood.

To the Editors.

“Gentlemen—The writer of this has this moment seen your editorial remarks (July 23d,) preceding the republication of Mr. Barton’s letter from Smyrna and its accompanying preface.  There is neither the desire nor intention in this communication to cavil at, or in any way reply to, any portion of those remarks, further than as they contain a gross misstatement of Mr. Barton’s conduct, into which you have been doubtless led, either by misinformation, or what is more probable, by some confusion in the names of the parties; for with the interchange of the names, your statement would be nearly correct.  Mr. Barton was no farther the aggressor in the affair at Smyrna, than by the single act of his being challenger.  His opponent it was (who belonged to the vessel to which Mr. Barton had just been ordered) who showed such outrageous conduct towards Mr. Barton, which you attribute to him as his course towards the other; and it was this outrageous conduct which caused Mr. Barton to call out the officer (his enemy by a previous quarrel), who had thus insulted him.  You perceive the truth is the reverse of your statement.

“Common justice to Mr. Barton will, the writer of this feels assured, induce you in your next paper, to rectify your ‘exposition of the case of Mr. Barton.’  Thus removing through the same channel which created it, the source of public error into which it is believed you have inadvertently led that public.  You will readily admit. that whatever view you may deem proper to take of Commodore Elliott’s treatment of Mr. Barton, the latter should not be the sufferer in public estimation by any misstatement arising from inaccurate information or any confusion in the story.

“The facts as stated in this communication, were published in February last in the public prints, and it is believed in your own paper, the Times, among the rest.  As to your remark, (predicated on your error as just noticed) that you ‘have no will to censure the course of Barton, you regret the suffering he has brought upon himself, and you are inclined to look upon it as sufficient retribution,’ the writer of this has only to say, that he committed no act as an aggressor, except that of giving challenge, in the propriety of which he was borne out by all the officers of the squadron.  He has never complained of his sufferings, as far as they arose from the wound and the surgical operations.  He knew the chance game of mortal conflict, and does not now, nor did he repine at any moment, at being the loser in the affair; but he did and does complain, and loudly too of his sufferings bodily and mental, from a cause extraneous to either the wound or the operations, and his complaint has reached the government.  Whether in this complaint he has met the sympathy of the Navy universally, and the public as universally, it is no intention of the writer here to assert.  You Sir, as well as every other editor or individual, can interrogate naval officers, of all grades, and ascertain the tone of their feelings on this point.

“Philadelphia, July 27, 1836.”    (Pages 102-3.)


Number 9 (September 1, 1836)

     “On our first page to-day, will be found some very severe remarks from the New York Courier and Enquirer, respecting the outrageous conduct of Commodore Elliott towards Midshipman Barton, in the Mediterranean.  We have expunged some of the more violent sentences, as not of moment in the discussion; and with what remains, we believe the public fully agree.  We are happy to congratulate Mr. Barton and his friends, as well as the great number of strangers who feel a deep interest in the young officer on account of the unmanly treatment which he has received, upon his release from the control of Elliott.  We learn, that in consequence of an earnest desire expressed by himself and friends, to the Navy Department, the Secretary of the Navy has within a few days past, directed Com. Elliott ‘to transfer Mr. Barton to the first public vessel returning to the United States.’  His emancipation from the domineering thraldom [sic] of such a courageous and humane commander, will be hailed with rejoicing by every one who loves the navy.  In truth, the conduct of Elliott in this instance, deserved the investigation of a court martial. We trust that immediately on his return, Mr. Barton will prefer his complaint personally to the Secretary of the Navy.  This, with characteristic magnanimity, he may perhaps decline. Dr. Boyd, who is also relieved, has cause quite sufficient to arraign Elliott for an unofficer-like infringement of his rights.  We sincerely hope that the Secretary of the Navy will be beforehand with both these officers, by voluntarily ordering a court of inquiry, to overhaul Elliott’s behaviour, which, if we may judge from the almost unanimous voice of the press, has deeply offended the people at large.  There is a feeling of humanity in the public, which is hurt by such barbarism as that of Commodore Elliott, and as to the officers of the navy, high and low, there can be but one opinion among them, on the subject.—Philadelphia Gazette, Aug. 12.”

“From the N. Y. Courier and Enquirer.      

“As we intimated some days since we have been put in possession of authentic evidence of Elliott’s conduct, which oversets entirely the lame though labored defence [sic] of that person in the Times, and which must make him even more odious with every right feeling American citizen than he has been heretofore.  The facts which we now submit to the public, rest upon no vague authority; the main incidents are verified by letters now on file in the Navy Department, of which we have been shown notarial copies.  There is no mistake, no misrepresentation in the case.  The black-hearted and malignant sea tyrant has seen fit to ‘assume the responsibility,’ and we hope and trust will be made to suffer for it before his peers in a court martial—at least before his peers in official station; his peers in personal profligacy and meanness, are not to be found in the United States Navy.  The following facts in relation to this case, are derived from sources that leave the cowardly despot and his friends no possibility of cavil or contradiction.  It must be borne in mind that the prominent incident in the defence put forth in the Times is proved to be utterly false, as indeed has been virtually acknowledged by that paper itself in a subsequent article on the subject.  Midshipman Barton, so far from being the aggressor, was in fact the aggrieved and insulted party.  A pretty apologist for Elliott, the Times is, truly, when in making out its case, it actually falsifies the whole statement by substituting Midshipman Barton for the officer who was the cause of the contest!    

“Mr. Barton had long been an applicant for orders to the Constitution, before the commander had been disignated [sic].  He received them, sailed one cruise (to England and France,) in her with Commodore Elliott, who, at Cherbourg, found this officer’s talents for draughting and painting useful to him, and he freely called them into requisition.  On the return of the frigate, Mr. B. was among the very last of the many officers who sought to be detached from her.  He had been on excellent terms with the Commodore, but did not admire or respect him.  The answer of the Secretary of the Navy to Mr. B. was, ‘that as the commander of the frigate was opposed to the measure, he could not grant his (Mr. Barton’s) request.’  Deeply mortified at being obliged to sail with him again, he determined to put the smoothest face possible on the matter—showed no displeasure, nor did he give the slightest cause by any official neglect or misconduct for any displeasure towards him on the part of the commodore, who again made requisitions on his graphic talents (which are of the first order.)  Mr. Barton had received the impression that his drawings were intended for the Navy Department.  Finding at Mahon, his error, ‘he resolved never more to put pencil to paper for the commodore.’  Accordingly, the next time he was called on to make drawings (no part of his duty, and a mere courtesy, already often rendered this commander,) he politely declined any further extra-official exercise and labor of this kind for the private purpose of the commander: but at the same time declared his services at Commodore Elliott’s command for the Navy Department, or any public use.  Perhaps this gave umbrage to Commodore Elliott, - but he had no right nor any reason to take any.  Up to the period of the arrival of the Constitution at Smyrna, no fault was found with Mr. Barton’s official conduct by Commodore Elliott.  He had neither been notified of any neglect of duty, nor charged with any official remissness, nor suspended, nor reprimanded.  In a word, as an officer, he was now the same as he had all along been, and that Commodore Elliott thought him an efficient and a good one of his class, is manifest from what must be considered a compliment to him—his having refused to part with him on a second cruise, when he had already had such knowledge of his talents and abilities and gentlemanly deportment as a first cruise had given him.  But now, he ordered Mr. B. to the schr. Shark, where the advantages were of far less extension; and to him it was particularly hard to leave the frigate to which he had been especially appointed by the Secretary of the Navy, and to repair on board a small vessel to which he would not have been ordered by the department, in the U.S.; having already served in a schooner; and in fact, had only served a year and four months in a frigate, all the time he has been in the navy, since 1824; having all the rest of the time served in small vessels.  But he was also ordered under restrictions, on board the schooner; being deprived of indulgences his colleagues possessed.  Notwithstanding all this, Mr. Barton hesitated not to obey the order, and repaired on board the Shark, where his enemy was an officer of his own grade, but senior to him.  That ill blood existed between these officers, was made known to Com. Elliott by the captain of the schooner, and that the almost certain result would be a duel—and all this in time, too, for Commodore Elliott, had he been so desirous of quelling duelling in midshipmen, to have substituted some other in his place—if indeed it was a fact, that the Shark was in need of a passed midshipman, which is mere assertion by the ‘Times,’ and remains to be proved.  There is no doubt, however, of the right of Commodore Elliott to have ordered Mr. Barton, despite of all these circumstances, on board the schooner, if he chose to exercise that right—and in time of war or exigency, it is certain such considerations of a private nature ought not to interfere with the public good of the service—but in time of peace, with such a peaceful commodore, so overwhelmingly anxious and determined to repress dueling, it is marvelous that so good an opportunity of preventing this unfortunate affair, by keeping the parties separated as the Navy Department had by accident separated them, was allowed to pass by.

     “The duel did take place which was predicted.  In the absence of Commodore Elliott, the second and surgeon of Mr. Barton, at his own request, took him on board of the Constitution, for the purpose of having the ball extracted by the fleet surgeon.  Was anything more natural than that Mr. Barton should not wish to be carried on board the Shark, to be placed night and day in the sight and hearing of his antagonist, within 8 or 10 feet square, (the size of the steerage of a schooner) to have his wounds probed, and all his sufferings witnessed by him.  He preferred rather to throw himself on the generous feelings of his commander, who so well knew the necessary comforts for a wounded officer, that it is said he had exhibited a sick cot prepared on board of his own, this very frigate, at New York, in case Col. Towson should have wounded him.  But the comforts a commodore might require, could be dispensed with by a young officer.  It has never been heard of, till the ‘Times’ published it on the 26th ult., that the first lieutenant of the Constitution had at first refused to receive the wounded officer.  Nothing of the kind is mentioned in the full letters of Mr. Barton’s second, or in that of the fleet surgeon, Dr. Boyd; both of which letters are on file in the Navy Department nor has a single officer from the squadron mentioned it.  It is known to be usual in the service, in cases of danger from diseases or other cause, to remove even an officer from a small confined vessel to a larger one, if it is thought his life may be thus saved.  Lieutenant {Andrew A.} Harwood is at this time sent from this very Shark to this very Constitution, sick: so says a letter from the squadron, just received.  The fleet surgeon did not merely wish Mr. Barton kept on board the Constitution for the convenience of attending him.  Dr. Boyd is not a man to prefer his own convenience to that of his patient’s ease and safety.  He ‘protested,’ as the fleet surgeon, against his removal any where at that time, just after the painful extraction of the ball, because such removal would jeopard limb, and even life.  To the Shark he was ordered and taken, and such were his sufferings, that while they were hoisting him out of the frigate and sending him in a boat to be hoisted again into the schooner, the old tars who witnessed it were shocked, and gave unequivocal and feminine proof of their sympathy.  This is stated in a private letter from a highly respectable officer on board at the time to his family in Pennsylvania.  The authority of that officer could not be doubted by any one.  It is positively certain that all the letters from the squadron at the time, gave the most feeling and condemnatory account of Commo. Elliott’s treatment of Mr. B.  It is positively untrue, as ascribed in the Times of the 26th ult., that there was no danger, or could have been none, as ‘gun shot wounds in the lower part of the leg are not very serious, though they may be long in healing.’   In the first place this was, according to Dr. Boyd, in the upper part of the leg, two and a half inches below the knee; the fracture was comminuted, the fragments of broken bone numerous, and no surgeon of any reputation would say Mr. Barton was not in danger of limb and life.  Dr. Boyd thought so, and used that argument to induce Commo. Elliott to arrest his inhuman order for carrying him up the hatchways and swinging him out of the ship.  But the nature of the case, as detailed by Mr. Barton’s letter already published, proves the great danger in which he stood.  Dr. Boyd positively states in his letter which is on file in the Navy Department, that Mr. Barton’s case was made worse by Commodore Elliott subjecting him to two  removals.

“It was Dr. Boyd’s intercession with Com. Elliott that finally induced the latter to permit his removal on shore—for Dr. Boyd could not see him annoyed in mind and aggravated in his inevitable sufferings, by being cramped up in a space with six or seven officers, of eight or ten feet square.  As for the two months advance pay, which the writer says was left him, with a letter of credit on the schooner—admit it, this was as it should have been.  But does the writer of the letter pretend to insinuate that from Commodore Elliott this emanated? or [sic] if it did, is Commodore Elliott so silly as to claim merit for it?  In the first place it was none of his business, but that of the Purser of the Shark; in the second, it is no wide assertion to say that our navy does not possess a purser who would have to consult a commodore about such a matter for an officer in such a situation.  From the purser of the Shark then—the only responsible person in the business—this necessary accommodation came—and if Commodore Elliott chose to be officious, it was needless, for the reason just stated.  No purser of the navy requires a lesson from Commodore Elliott on the course of feeling and propriety in such a case!  The following is an extract from a letter from Mr. Barton:

     “’I was taken at my request on board the Constitution, wishing that good—that excellent man, Dr. Boyd, to extract the ball; which he truly did secundum artem.  Hardly was it out, before Commodore Elliott ordered me peremptorily out of the ship.  I was in great agony—had taken opium, and required as much rest and quietude as could be given me—but despite all this and the Doctor’s energetic remonstrances against the act—in fact, despite his official protest as fleet surgeon, stating the danger of both limb and life, I was hoisted over the side as a quantity of purser’s pots, pans, and stores, with a broken and shattered leg—the blood gushing madly through the bandages—and the pain—merciful God! the see-saw motion of a yard and stay, can only faintly be imagined --  certainly not described.  The apartments of a schooner you well know are not as commodious as those of a frigate—so you may suppose the inevitable torture of a broken limb was not considerably improved in so small a space.  Nevertheless, after four or five days durance in the Shark’s mud hole, and as a mere act of charity, Commodore Elliott consented to my removal, and here I am in Smyrna, sixty-eight days on my back, the squadron having long since sailed for Malta and Gibraltar.’

“Mr. Barton attributes Commodore Elliott’s conduct to him, to his refusal to continue to paint pictures and draughts of battles for him.  I have myself seen, in this city, a letter from an officer to another, who says, “Commodore Elliott’s outrageous and inhuman conduct to Barton was without cause except that he refused to paint for him.’  Another officer from the squadron passed through this city, and corroborates this idea—that ‘Barton had offended the commodore by saying he was called on as if a drawing master.’

“A most magnanimous cause for persecuting an officer!! -- driving him by an order out of the ship to which he had been especially appointed, after long solicitation, to an inferior place—forcing him thus into a duel—then having him carried up the hatchways and swinging him over the side of the frigate, at a critical time of his hurt, to a miserable place not large enough to swing a cat, in which five or six officers were dwelling—an officer who had committed no official fault or misdemeanor!!! -- an officer who stands accredited in the records of the Navy Department, by numerous letters, (being one from every commander he has heretofore sailed with, and all under whose command he had been on shore,) giving him the most unqualified testimonials of good conduct, gentlemanly deportment, and officer-like demeanor.  He has never been arrested, nor suspended, since he has been in the navy (12 years) for any misconduct, saving a mere pro forma proceeding by way of official discountenance, when he fought a duel in the West Indies, two years ago.  In that affair he was he challenged party.  Should such a young man, possessing the accredited character as an officer, and one of the best habits, possessing undoubted talents, and various accomplishments, with the fault, perhaps, of being a little too impetuous and daring, but brave, open and generous hearted.--  Should such a one, a mere youth, (23 years) be thus dealt with?  Refused admission into a mess, and of course resenting the insult—is inhumanly treated by his official guardian.  Can such in the navy be ‘without our especial wonder?’  All the rules and usages for the  government of the navy, dwell upon humanity to sick and disabled men and officers, to captains and others.  It is a fact, that Commodore Elliott had no right to contest the fleet surgeon’s wishes.  He was appointed by the President as fleet surgeon, as omnipotent in his department as a commander in his—that is, his word and wishes should have been laws with the commodore, unless it was positively impracticable to execute those wishes for his patient.”   (Pages 129-131.)


     “The Constitution, Potomac, John Adams, and Shark, were at Naples on the 5th July; would sail in a few days for Corfu, where they expected to meet the frigate United States.  The greatest health and harmony prevailed in the squadron.”   (Page 143.)


Number 18 (November 3, 1836)

                                    “Correspondence of the Boston Morning Post.

Malta, September 2, 1836

     “This morning I received a letter from a friend at Athens, from which I extract the following, respecting the movements of the American squadron under Commodore Elliott:-- ‘On the 19th ult. Our squadron consisting of the Constitution, Potomac, Captain Nicholson, and John Adams, Capt. Stringham, anchored at Piraeus—and on the 21st August, the frigate United States, Capt. Wilkinson, joined them.  The squadron touched at Napoli, and remained three days previous to their coming to this place.  I regret to add that Commodore Elliott was too unwell to leave his cabin, having taken a severe cold at Corfu.  The Commodore, during his stay, was introduced to the heads of the different departments, and received every attention from them—all of whom, on their going on board the flag ship, were received with the customary honors, and salutes due their rank.

     “The squadron left here on the night of the 25th ult., for Sada [Souda], in Crete, from whence they mean to go to the coasts of Syria and Alexandria, and thence to Malta.

     “….Dr. Boyd, fleet surgeon, has gone home in the Potomac, and Lt. Bullus, (flag lt.) has gone to Mahon for his health…”   (Page 287.)


Number 20 (November 17, 1836)


“The frigates Constitution, and United States, and sloop John Adams were at Smyrna, Sept. 3.”    (Page 320.)

Volume IV


Number 10 (March 9, 1837)


“From the Shipping Gazette.—In the Shipping Gazette of the 9th instant, our Falmouth correspondent reported that the schooner Perseverance, of Brixham, on her voyage from Cadiz to Dublin and Liverpool, had been towed back to Cadiz by the United States frigate Constitution, totally dismasted and a complete wreck.  Our Brixham correspondent informs us that a general meeting of the Shipping Association of that port was held a few days since, at which a resolution of thanks was voted to Commodore Elliott, for his enterprising and disinterested conduct in saving the ship and crew.  We most cheerfully comply with the request made to us by the gentlemen of the Association, to publish Commodore Elliott’s letter to the British Consul at Cadiz, communicating the fact of his having carried the Perseverance into that port, and we are quite sure that the generous sentiments which it breathes, will be duly appreciated and responded to by every British heart:

                                                              ‘U. S. Frigate Constitution, Dec. 1836

    ‘Sir:  At sea, on the 22d instant, I fell in with a vessel, crippled and entirely dismasted.  She proved to be the schooner Perseverance, of Dartmouth, Captain Adams, who had left Cadiz on the 7th, laden with wine, and bound for Liverpool.  It blew a strong gale, and I was unable to communicate with her by trumpet or boarding.  I veered her a hawser, the prompt acceptance of which on the part of the captain cannot but be approved of by all who are interested.  A strong east wind prevailing, I took her in tow for Lisbon.  The wind came out adverse, the gale shifting, and the sea making a high breach over her, a flag of distress was hoisted; the wind proved more adverse within thirty miles of Lisbon.  I bore up for this port, and now take pleasure in bringing the vessel here without further injury, since she was taken in tow.  The persevering industry of the captain entitles him to the kind consideration of the owners.  It affords me pleasure, sir, to deliver her into your hands, and the more so in being the providential instrument of rendering assistance to a vessel bearing the flag of a nation to whom we are allied by ties of language, and the many pleasing recollections of mutual intercourse.

     ‘I am, very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

                                                                                                             ‘ J. D. Elliott

‘Commanding the United States forces in the Mediterranean and                                                           

adjacent Islands. 

‘To J. M. Brackenburgh, Esq.

‘His Britannic Majesty’s Consul, Cadiz.’”   (Page 146.)


Number 14 (April 6, 1837)

“From the Boston Atlas.


“It as once a proud distinction to an officer to receive a sword, or medal, or service of plate, as an honorary reward—for formerly it was the reward of merit, and being bestowed by honor-giving hands, conferred high honor upon the subject.  But in the present case it is a pitiful mockery, and smacks more of avaricious baseness on the one part, and of servile adulation on the other.  

“It is but of late years we have heard of presents being made by the crews of our national ships to their officers, whilst still under their command; and thus unmilitary, and as it appears to us, mercenary abuse should be visited with the severest reprobation; since we think it fraught with the most pernicious effects to the character and prestige of our naval service, to the discipline and efficiency of our ships, and to the integrity of the officers.  It is almost open bribery; a kind of propitiatory oblation, made by a powerless number of men, to the good or evil genius who is for a time still to reign over them with most absolute dominion.

“With the exception of life and death, a commander’s power over his crew is despotic; they are absolutely at his mercy; he is restrained by no direct responsibility in his conduct towards his crew, and whatever his caprice or his cruelty may devise, the sufferers have no appeal while under his command.  They can scarcely be called free agents, but merely slaves without the name; and as we intend to show are generally prompted to such acts of humbling servility, by some creature or ‘toady’ of the commander.  As well might plantation slaves refuse paying some mark of homage to their master when prompted so to do by their drivers—perhaps at the master’s own suggestion—as a ship’s crew      when similarly prompted by some of their commander’s familiars.

“Now as it is the pernicious principle involved in these gifts to commanders that we wish to attack, and caring nothing about Commodore Elliott’s plate, his crew, or himself, except as they illustrate the principle—we will suppose a case, to show in what manner these presents are obtained from a ship’s crew; and confident in our knowledge of this modus operandi, we challenge any one conversant with naval matters to deny the facts, or to show our statements unfounded.

“One of our national ships is in a foreign port.  Her commander being ashore, sees a magnificent vase for sale in a Jeweller’s shop.  It particularly takes his fancy—he inspects it with a longing eye—considers how greatly it would add to  the splendor of his sideboard—how it would delight his wife, and be the envy of his acquaintances at home.  He wants it hugely—but alas! Its price id $900, and he is already in debt on the purser’s books!  What’s to be done?  When a vessel cannot sail direct to her port against the wind, a well worked traverse will often fetch up with it.  Hold your luff, Commodore, we’ll round the bows of that useful instrument, your very intelligent coxswain!  He is a man of weight and influence among your crew! he [sic] is a ‘ship’s lawyer,’ and may unravel this knotty yarn to your satisfaction.  The coxswain has taken the hint—he is on the forecastle with a group of the leading men around him—he fires a few blank cartridges to try their metal—all’s well—slap goes his full broadside, round shot, grape, and canister—‘What say you my lads? come [sic] let’s put in for it—only a couple of dollars or so—that’s nothing—and make the old skipper a present of it—shan’t lose anything by it in the long run, you know—for says he to me, Brown, says he, I mean to do a great deal for the men, if only they try to please me—they are all fine fellows, says he, and that’s a fact.  That’s when he was looking at the shiner—and I was standing ‘long side of him.  Mass! but [sic] it is fine tho’—How that would set off the old barky’s cabin, says he—so it would, says I—but  says he, can’t afford it, Brown, can’t afford it—I’m poorer than any man on board the ship.  That’s what the old skipper said—now I’ve a mind boys we put in for it and make him a present of it—he’ll take it, I know—then, shipmates, look out for good times for the rest of the cruise.’

“If on shore masses of men are easily moved in any direction by certain adroit wire-pullers, on board ship a crew of unreflecting, simple-minded sailors are still more easily impelled.  Any novelty is popular, and impulses that effect a large number of the crew, soon affect the whole universally.  In the above case self-interest acts as a strong motive, for they hope by such means to obtain favors and indulgences; their vanity is also flattered in being allowed to become donors to their commander, and in seeing him the humble recipient of their bounty.  The money they do not regard, and the principle they neither understand or [sic] care about.  But suppose they are not unanimous—suppose there are one or two recusants among the crew—some Jack Thompson or Bill Smith who is gifted with a little more brain than the others of his shipmates—and does not understand, altogether, the why and the wherefore of bestowing such a present upon a commander who has done nothing but his duty towards the crew—flogging them when they deserved it—and sometimes when, in the said Jack Thompson’s opinion, they did not deserve it.  He refuses to subscribe his quota for the plate.  What is the consequence?  Why the officious coxswain contrives to let the Commodore know of Jack’s recusancy, and from that day he is a marked man.  One of the prerogatives of a commander is power over the rank and pay of his sailors.  The rate of every shipped man is at his disposal.  He creates or breaks his petty officers—increases or reduces the pay of his sailors, by his power over their rate—at his own will or pleasure.  Suppose Jack Thompson was a petty officer—an opportunity is soon found to disrate him—he is flogged at the gangway—and turned into the afterguard, and ever after damned as being ‘a disgrace to my ship.’

“This is no an exaggerated view of the subject, and it might with perfect justice be more strongly illustrated.  A commander so mean and avaricious as to accept such a present from such a source, and under such degrading circumstances, would not hesitate to persecute a helpless individual, who dared be bold enough to refuse this act of servile homage.  Besides, as his own principles could not be of the most elevated order, he could scarcely give a sailor credit for acting from better motives than instigated his own conduct; but would place his refusal to disaffection, surliness or avarice.

“W e can conceive of no circumstances under which a commander could accept, with propriety, of a present from his crew—if that crew were still to remain under his command.  And there are but very few cases, and those of a marked description, that would entitle him to accept a present after the discharge of the crew, or the cessation of his command—such, for instance, as having led them to a brilliant victory, and during the action had shown extraordinary personal gallantry.  Or if he had extricated his vessel from a perilous situation by most consummate professional ability.  Or if during the cruise some dreadful epidemic had prevailed on board, and he had resigned his cabin to the sick, that they might be more comfortable—or indeed had done any uncommon action, that had greatly benefited the sailors, and reflected honor upon himself and the service—then upon t heir parting with him they might offer some token of their esteem, which he might with decent propriety accept.  But not until he no longer commanded them.

“This species of bribery should be equally interdicted with that of receiving presents from foreign Courts—which is prohibited by the constitution.  If the custom is suffered to prevail in the navy, there will be an end to all discipline and subordination, and the efficiency of our ships destroyed.  Discipline, to be effective, should be inflexible and even rigorous; requiring absolute control on the part of the commander, and unquestioning submission on that of the men.  The reins of government are never relaxed, without some ill consequence to the efficiency of the ship of war.  But if commanders as [sic] to receive such bribes from their crews, it is to be feared that instead of sternly adhering to the line of their duties, they will oftener be seeking to propitiate; and instead of enforcing, will descend to persuade.  Nay, finally, it will be deemed even disreputable not to have had such a present made them by their crew.  The crews will keep it hung in terrorem over their commanders’ heads—and we can only guess at the sacrifices that will be made to secure it.

     “Such a delightful state of things would be sufficiently democratic to satisfy even the most rabid loco-foco—and our gallant Navy would become an ‘unreal mockery,’—‘a horrible shadow’—a jest and a bye-word.”   (Pages 213-4.)


     “The frigate Constitution, Com. Elliott, was spoken on the 7th Jan. in lat. 37-8, lon. 4 W. from a cruise, bound to Port Mahon, all well…”   (Page 223.)


Number 16 (April 20, 1837)

“Extract from a letter from an officer on board the Mediterranean squadron, to his friend in Washington, dated                               Mahon, Feb. 15, 1837.

     ‘Com. Elliott has received a pressing invitation from the Sultan, through Com. Porter, to visit Constantinople the ensuing summer.  A fine ship of the line, which has so long been promised and expected, would be a noble conveyance for us in an expedition like this.  But the fame of old Ironsides, with the General on her bows, will make up for a deficiency in metal or timber.  The Sultan, wishing to inspect the whole detail of a first rate man of war, will visit the Constitution on her arrival at Constantinople.  This was done by Ibrahim Pacha, while we were on the coast of Syria last summer.  On one occasion, His Highness was dining on board, and being a little in his cups, he made each of us fill, and with bumpers, all standing, he drank to the health of Gen. Jackson , at the same time facing his portrait.  At Alexandria, Mahomet Ali made us a similar visit; and I judge it was from their representations that the Sultan has been induced to invite us to Constantinople, that he may also pay us a visit..’—Globe.”  (Page 247.)

     “Governor Cass, the American Minister to France, we learn from the New York Times, will make an excursion this summer up the Mediterranean in the Constitution frigate, Com. Elliott.  He is to embark at Marseilles, with his family, about March 25th.  Constantinople will be visited, and we suppose also Alexandria, Athens, and the Barbary towns, with a view probably to adjust existing treaties, the visit of the Minister not being, we apprehend, one of mere pleasure.”       (Page 252.)

Number 18 (May 4, 1837)


“In Norfolk, on the 20th, ult., Lieut, John M. Berrien, U.S. navy [sic], to Miss Mary A. daughter of the late Capt. George Grice of Philadelphia.”   (Page 288.)



Number 22 (June 1, 1837)


“In Philadelphia, on the 23d ult. Captain Daniel Turner of the United States Navy, to Catharine M. Bryan, daughter of the late Arthur Bryan, of Charleston, S.C.”   (Page 352.)

Number 23 (June 8, 1837)

“Frigate Constitution was at Marseilles latter part of April, awaiting the arrival of Hon. Lewis Cass from Paris.”     (Page 367.)

Number 24 (June 15, 1837)

“Gov. Cass, the American Minister, embarked at Marseilles for Constantinople, on the 1st May.”       (Page 377.)

“Constantinople, April 12,-- A  few days ago the Ports gave a firman to allow the American frigate United States, Com. Elliott, to come up from the Dardanelles.  She brings Com. Porter, the Charge d’Affaires, who has been absent the last twelve months, to recruit his health, and also Gov. Cass, the American minister to Paris, who will first pay a diplomatic visit to Athens.  Whether he will appear in an official character, or not, is more than I have heard.”  (Page 382.)

Volume V


Number 1 (July 6, 1837)

“The U. S. Mediterranean squadron.—The Frigate Constitution and Schooner Shark sailed from Port Mahon on the 23 of April, 1837, for the coast of France, there to take on board Gov. Cass and family, preparatory to a visit to the coast of Syria and Egypt.  Mr. Everett, Chaplain of the Constitution, died at Mahon on the 11th of April.”  (Page 13.)


Number 10 (September 7, 1837)

“Copy of a letter from Com. J. D. Elliott to the Secretary of the Navy, dated

                                                                             "U. S. Ship Constitution

                                                                                   " Malta, June 7, 1837

     “Sir: I had the honor to state my arrival at Palermo.  We sailed thence on the 3d, having no communication with port from quarantine.  While at Leghorn, on the 10th of last month, we took in three distressed American seamen, whom we discovered twenty days out, to be infected with small pock.  The cases ere quite mild, and, from the precautions of vaccination of the crew, including the family of Gen. Cass, the disease has not spread.  The sick have been removed from the ship to the Hospital of this place.

“A quarantine of 25 days was imposed on us here.  I declined remaining, and shall proceed immediately on for Athens, the Grecian islands, Egypt, Syria, and, ultimately, to Constantinople, should the plague, now raging there, through information of Sir Charles Vaughan, have abated.  On the 12th ult. The Shark sailed from Tunis for Constantinople, with Commodore Porter on board.

“Though in quarantine, we have received every possible attention at the hands of Sir. J. Rowley, and other public authorities.  I am happy to add, that the utmost harmony continues to prevail in the ship, and that the family of Gen. Cass, through accommodating dispositions, make their situation, in all respects, pleasant and desirable.”  (Page 152.)


Number 12 (September 21, 1837)

“Constantinople, July 19.--  A salute of twenty-one guns, which was answered by as many from the castles, announced the arrival of the magnificent American frigate Constitution in the harbor of this capital on the 15th instant, having on board General Cass, Minister and Envoy of the United States at Paris, who has lately been on a mission to the Court of King Otho.  The real object of the General’s visit to Constantinople is yet unknown; but though by some stated to be merely for pleasure and the recovery of his health, which is rather in an impaired state, it is generally a supposed, by those who are likely to know more about the matter, to be of high political and commercial importance.  His late mission to Greece was for the purpose of negotiating a treaty of commerce with the Greek Government, in which it is stated that he succeeded beyond his most sanguine hopes; and this concluded, it was his intention to have proceeded to Egypt, to have an interview with Mehemet Ali, and thence to have visited the ports and Consular stations of the Levant, for the supposed purpose of carrying into execution such measures and arrangements as would tend to increase and facilitate the commercial relations of the United States with the East; and Constantinople was to have been his last visit.  His negotiations in Greece being completed, the General had, with these intentions, sent orders here for the Shark corvette (whose arrival I announced some time since) to join him immediately at Athens, and escort him from thence to Egypt; but hearing, in the meantime, that Mehemet Ali had left for Candia, the General altered his plans, and determined to come here first.  From the time the Shark left here she must have passed out of the Dardanelles almost the same day the Constitution passed in.  The Americans, have, for the last few years, been using their utmost endeavors to increase their commerce with this country, but hitherto they have been so far unsuccessful that, despite their efforts to support it, instead of increasing it seems yearly to diminish.—Letter in the London Chronicle.”     (Page 191.)


Number 17 (October 26, 1837)


     “The Editor of the New York Gaz. has read attested copies of all the official proceedings in the case alluded to, and asserts that a case of more flagrant outrage does not stand recorded in our naval annals.

     “The case is shortly stated.  The Commodore had bought some Arabian horses, and having sent them all to the United States, except a favorite mare, the officers, on arriving at Port Mahon, proposed a race for the purpose of testing the speed of the animal, the Commodore himself being among the foremost in the proposition.  Two officers of the ship procured horses, and run [sic] against the Commodore’s Arabian, and beat her.  Another race was got up, and then she won.  During the excitement consequent upon the race, two of the officers of the navy were talking earnestly in relation to it, and Elliott, riding up, used offensive and very unbecoming language towards one of them, Lieutenant Hunter, brandished his stick over the head of that officer, and ordered him on board the frigate, there to consider himself suspended from duty.  The mandate was obeyed.  The unofficer-like scene occurred in the presence of the officers of the British line-of-battle ship Rodney, and immediately afterwards Lieutenant Hunter addressed a letter to the Secretary of the Navy, reporting the outrage on his person and feelings by his commanding officer, and respectfully demanding redress and protection from the Department.

“This letter, by the rules of the service, had necessarily to pass through the hands of the Commodore in Chief, and it was accordingly enclosed to Com. Elliott in a respectful letter to that officer; whereupon, the Commander immediately ordered a Court Martial upon Lieut. Hunter, under charge of unbecoming language in his dialogue with his brother officer on the race ground, and of a mis statement [sic] of facts in his letter to the Secretary of the Navy.  Capt. Wilkinson, of the frigate United States, was President of the Court; and, after a full examination of witnesses, the Court unanimously and honorably acquitted Lieutenant Hunter of both the charges and their specifications, and Elliott was obliged to approve the proceedings.  Not satisfied, however, he ordered another Court Martial for the trial of the Lieutenant on the treating of the Commodore cavalierly, and, as the specification has it, ‘satirically’ in his defence [sic] before the first Court.  He was unanimously and honorably acquitted again!  Now what does the reader suppose was the foundation of this second charge against this persecuted and gallant young officer?

     “Why, truly, he had said in his defence [sic], that Commodore Elliott was so bold an fearless an officer, and so celebrated for his high sense of honor, &c., &c., or words to that effect, that no imputation would be made upon his motives.  The language, it must be confessed, was bitterly sarcastic in its application to such a man as Commodore Elliott; but it was perfectly decorous and becoming in phraseology; and, to an officer who deserved it, would of course have been deemed highly complimentary.  But Elliott, knowing how little he was entitled to such encomium, very naturally considered it ‘satirical.’

     “Indeed, the whole defence [sic] is a very eloquent paper, drawn up with distinguished ability and perfectly conclusive in its reasoning.  The finding of the Court, by the way, is quite as ironical as any portion of the defence [sic]: for, though perfectly decorous, and even respectful in its language, its peculiar application made it quite as open to objection on the Commodore’s part, as the language of Lieutenant Hunter!

     “A great number of witnesses were brought forward, and all of them, but two, by Elliott himself.  The officers of the British line-of-battle ship were among the number, and every single witness adduced, swore strongly and most positively in Mr. Hunter’s favor.  The British officers in particular were emphatic in their testimony to the forbearance and propriety with which Mr. Hunter acted throughout the whole transaction.

     “Lieutenant Hunter is acknowledged on all hands [sic] to be a most excellent and exemplary officer, and is exceedingly beloved throughout the squadron.”  (Page 263.)


Number 26 (December 28, 1837)

“Report of the Secretary of the Navy

“Navy Department, December 2, 1837

“…The squadron in the Mediterranean consists of the frigates Constitution and the United States, and the schooner Shark.  This is less than the usual force upon that station, but is deemed adequate to the present exigencies of our commerce in that sea; and as vessels were much wanted for other stations, none have been sent to that since the return of the Potomac and John Adams.  The frigate Constitution must be recalled in the early part of the coming year, when an addition can be conveniently made to this squadron, and the ship of the line Pennsylvania sent to that station, should it be deemed expedient…”  (Page 1.)

Volume VI


Number 1 (January 4, 1838)

“General Cass at Jerusalem.—A letter dated Jerusalem, Aug. 14th, mentions a visit from Gen. Cass, (our Minister to France) family and suite.  They arrived at Jaffa in the frigate Constitution, and were accompanied to Jerusalem by Com. Elliott and several of his officers.  Gen. Cass and family staid [sic] with Mr. And Mrs. Whiting, (Missionaries of the American Board, the latter of whom is from this city;) and the remainder of the party, 8 in number, besides servants, with the Rev. Mr. Lanneau.  Mrs. Cass and her daughter were in feeble health.—Newark (N. J.) Daily Advertiser.”    (Page 13.)

“Frigate Constitution, Commodore Elliott, arrived at Port Mahon, Oct. 24.”

(page 15.)


Number 4 (January 25, 1838)

“From the Globe.

“Cruise of the U. S. Frigate Constitution.—By a letter from Marseilles, we learn that the frigate United States, Captain Wilkinson, reached there on the 18th of November, having on board General Cass, Minister to France, his family, and suite.  They arrived at Mahon about the 25th of October, in the Constitution, and performed their quarantine at that place.  They then embarked on board the United States, and arrived in Marseilles in that vessel.

“We understand, from our correspondent, that the cruise of the Constitution has been a most interesting one, and that few vessels have ever passed along a greater line of coast in the same time.  She left Marseilles the beginning of May, and sailed from there to Genoa, where she touched; thence to Leghorn, where the party landed, and proceeded through Pisa, Florence, and Siena, to Rome, examining whatever was remarkable in that most interesting region.  In the latter city  they were presented to the Pope, whose mild and unassuming manners made a very favorable impression upon all the party.  From Rome, they travelled through the Campagna, the seat of malaria and death, to Civita Vecchia, and t here re-embarked on board the Constitution.  They then sailed to Palermo, passing in sight of the Lipari Islands, and after remaining three days at the former place, sailed round the western end of Sicily, coasting the island, and having a fine view of the ancient city of Argrigentum, now Girgenti, and of its celebrated ruins, and reached Malta.  From thence they sailed for Greece, and passed for some days along its shores to Athens, where they landed.  Here they were gratified with excursions in all directions round the city, particularly to the bay of Salamis, and with a presentation to the young king and queen.  From thence some of the party performed a journey through Eleusis, across the mountains which separated Attica from Boeotia, to the great plain of Thebes, reaching to the foot of the mountains at the city of Platea, memorable for the defeat of the Persians.  Extensive remains of this city yet exist, which were explored, as well as the site of this great battle, yet easily identified by the little river Asopus, and by the tumulus in which the dead were buried.  From thence they went to Leuctriae, and thence to the ancient city of Thespiae, one of the earliest in Greece, and thence to Thebes.  Then through the very heart of the country by the city of Haliartus, the fountain of Lethe, and the field of Cheronaea to Delphi, and thence to the Gulf of Corinth, and down it to the isthmus and the city, and also to the city of Sicyon.  On the other side of the isthmus they again found the vessel, and sailed to Cape Colonna and Marathon, where they landed.

“From here they proceeded to the island of Tenedos, and landed on the plain of Troy, where  they spent the 4th of July.  They then sailed up the Dardanelles into the Sea of Marmora, and to Constantinople, and then up the Bosporus to the Black sea.  The plague was so prevalent here that their time and excursions were very much limited.  Hence they proceeded to Scio, and then passing the Grecian Archipelago, touching at Delos, they reached Syra [sic], and then went to Candia.  Thence to Jaffa, the ancient Joppa, where they landed, and went on to Jerusalem.  From this point they made several excursions to Bethlehem, the Mount of Olives, the tombs of the kings and of the judges, to Jericho, the Jordan, and the Dead Sea, and other places; and after a most interesting residence of several days, they departed, and travelled by Rama, Berri, Nablous, (the ancient Samaria,) the plain of Esdraelon, and Mount Herman, to Nazareth.  Hence by Cana, passing near the foot of Mount Tabor, and near the scene of the miracle of the loaves and fishes, they arrived at the city of Tiberias, on the lake of Galilee.  From here, along the lake shore, by the fountain of Bethsaida, and the site of the ancient Capernaum, and having to their left the old city of Saffad, to the Jordan, which they crossed at Jacob’s bridge.  They found this whole region had suffered exceedingly from the earthquake the preceding winter.  Tiberias and Saffad having been utterly destroyed.  They continued along the highlands, and passed immense numbers of Arabs, encamped in the patriarchal style, with their families and flocks.  They estimated that they saw, almost at one view, 5,000 camels.  They arrived at Damascus, and then crossed the ridge of ancient Lebanon to Balbec, and the range of Lebanon to the Cedars, suppose by many to the remains of the forest from which the timber for Solomon’s Temple was taken.  From here they went to Tripoli, in Syria, and re-embarked and sailed for Beirout.  Then they passed along the coast in a boat, for the greater convenience of landing, and sailed to Sidon.  From there they made an excursion into the ridges of Lebanon, to visit Lady Hester Stanhope and the emir prince of the Druses.  They were received with great kindness by Lady Hester, and found that their character as Americans was a passport to her attention.  They continued on to the country of the Druses, and were very hospitably entertained, but found that the emir was unfortunately absent.  They then returned, and sailed to the Tyre, and then to St, Jean d’Acre and Caiphas.  Here they ascended Mount Carmel, and then, taking horses, they proceeded along the coast, through the magnificent ruins of Caesarea, to Jaffa, where they again found the ship.  Then they sailed to Egypt, landed at Alexandria, were presented to Mehemet Ali, passed along the canal, entered the Nile, (then at its height,) and reached Cairo.  Here they had an interview with Ibrahim Pacha, examined the city, and visited the site of Heliopolis, or On.  They then went up the to the pyramids of Saccara, and then to the great pyramids of Ghizeh [Giza].  After this they returned to Alexandria, and sailed for Cyprus, made an excursion into the interior of the island, and sailed to Malta.

“Our correspondent informs us that the whole journey was performed without any unfortunate accident.”   (Page 54.)


Number 11 (March 15, 1838)


“Naval Architecture—No. 5

“…The Constitution, like the United States, has the same curve in her upper works [tumblehome], though not to the same extent.  She is certainly a much handsomer ship, and infinitely more comfortable.  Her sailing qualities are satisfactory, though we have seen a number of merchant ships that we think could beat her; and we believe the British frigates Inconstant and Galatea would give her some trouble, particularly going free.  In the French navy, there are frigates that could outsail the Constitution without any difficulty, and thee is no sort of use in qualifying or disguising the fact….   M.N.K. » (Page 169.)

Number 20 (May 17, 1838)

“Frigate Constitution, Commo. Elliott, sailed from Malta , on the 5th March, for Mahon; and supposed to be bound thence to the United States, to touch at Gibraltar and Madeira.”     (Page 320.)

Number 25 (June 21, 1838)

“Antiquities from Greece and Asia.—The American Commodore Elliott has on board the Constitution, at Malta, a large collection of very curious antiquities, which he has taken during his cruise in the Levant, from the plains of Marathon and Troy, the neighborhood of Athens, Corinth, and Sunium, different parts of Syria, especially Balbec, the Holy Land, and Egypt.  The most curious articles in this collection are two sarcophagi of marble, found near Beyroot, on the site of the city of Beryta.  They were discovered sixteen feet deep in the soil, by a peasant who was digging to set out a Mulberry tree.  The Commodore purchased them, and caused them to be transported aboard the frigate from a height 600 feet above the sea.  Five hundred men of the crew joined their efforts to carry these masses a distance of a mile and a half.  These sarcophagi are of white marble, all in one piece; the smallest has this inscription—Julia Mamaea Augusta.  She was the Mother of Alexander Severus, Emperor in the year 222 of the Christian era.  The two monuments were empty when taken by the crew of the Constitution.--  Paris paper. »      (Page 400.)

Volume VII


Number 6 (August 9, 1838)

“The U. S. frigate Constitution, Commodore Elliott, arrived in Hampton Roads, on Tuesday 31st ult., from the Mediterranean, and 28 days from Madeira. 

“The following is a list of officers:

“Commodore J. D. Elliott, Commander in Chief; W. Boerum, Esq., Commander; Oscar Bullus, Chs. H. McBlair, Henry A. Steele, Henry Darcantel, Percival Drayton, Bushrod W. Hunter, Lieutenants; W. J. Muse, Acting Master; Wm. S. Ringgold, 2nd Master; B. Washington, Fleet Surgeon; Samuel Barrington, Surgeon; J. N. Hambleton, Purser; J. L. C. Hardy, Lieut. of Marines; Thomas Wells, Commodore’s Secretary; D. C. McLeod, Assistant Surgeon; E. Middleton, D. F. Dulany, Passed Midshipmen; J. B. Carter, E. C. Anderson, A. H. Jenkins, E. E. Rogers, C. E. Fleming, Chas. Wager, W. C. B. S. Porter, Midshipmen; Robert Whitaker, Boatswain; Thos. Riley, Gunner; Fra’s Sagee, Carpenter; N. C. L’Hommedieu, Sailmaker.

“Passengers—P. Mid. Jas. I, Heap, and Mr. H. H. Kuhn, Mahon.”    (Pages 93-4.)

Number 7 (August 16, 1838)

“An officer on board the U. S. frigate Constitution, in writing to the editor of the Boston Traveller, from Hampton roads, says: ‘I have just time to say that we left Mahon for the United States on the 15th of June.  After a passage of eight days we arrived at Gibraltar; on the 26th we stood out of the bay, an 11 knot breezes taking us in 64 hours over 700 miles to the Island of Madeira, in fair view of its vine-clad hills and vallies [sic] teeming with frits and flowers.  Here we passed the 4th of July, and dressed ship in honor of the day; at meridian fired a salute of 26 guns, the band closing with the national air: the occasion was complimented by an elegant dinner given by the American Consul at the island; numerous invited guests were present, consisting of the Commodore and officers of the Constitution, the civil and military authorities, foreign consuls, &c.  The luxuries of the land were furnished forth, and the dessert was crowned with the delicious fruits and wines of the island: old Maderia, Malmsley, Tinta, and other prime brands, passed in bumpers in commemoration of the day, mutual pledges went round, and the feast was enlivened with the music of operas, waltzes, and national airs.

“In the evening the Constitution was brilliantly illuminated; lights shone from the mast heads; those planted along the batteries gave her the appearance of a line of battle ship; twenty-six rockets were let off from the quarter-deck, blue lights cast gleams from the yard arms, and illumined, like a thing of enchantment, the image of the ship.  So closed the day and its festivities.  At midnight we bade adieu to our hospitable host and his guests, who accompanied us to the beach, where we embarked, and soon after got underway for home; and here we are, with bright faces and glad hearts, counting the minutes which separate us from our friends.”    (Page 106.)

“From the Malta Government Gazette.

“Antiquities.— Commodore Elliott has on board the Constitution a number of very curious remains of antiquity, which he collected during his cruise in the Levant, dug  up from the plains of Marathon, and of Troy, from the neighborhood of Athens, Corinth, Sunium, various parts of Syria, and particularly from Balbec, all parts of the Holy Land, and Egypt.  But the most remarkable objects with which the new country of the United States will be enriched on his return to his native land, are two marble sarcophagi, found about three quarters of a mile in a direction east north east from Beyrout, in the center of the spot where once stood the ancient city of Berytus.  It happened that they were discovered sixteen feet under ground, while his ship was lying off that coast in August last, by a countryman who was planting a mulberry tree; and the Commodore lost no time in purchasing them, and had them immediately conveyed on board his ship, from a height of perhaps six hundred feet above the level of the sea.  In their removal across the country, a distance of about a mile and a half to the place of embarkation, on account of the massive weight, obstacles, embarrassing to any but the ingenuity and practical skill of sailors, were to be overcome.  By the means of powerful tackles, however, they were slung down precipices, and in many places were passed over yielding soil upon strong spars, and in this task nearly the whole of the ship’s company, consisting of 500 men, were employed.

“Each sarcophagus is cut out of a solid piece of white marble, and each has its cover in the form of a sloping roof, also in one piece.  With the exception of a fracture in an end of the larger one, which seems to have been broken through in search of the valuable articles which the Romans sometimes buried with their dead, they may be said to be in a perfect state of preservation; for the sculpture on all sides is almost as good as when left by the hand of the artist, consisting of wreaths supported by infantine figures, rosettes, the ram’s head, and the head of the bull.

“On the front or principal side of the smaller sarcophagus, we find the following inscription:




“Its dimensions are 7 ft. 4 1-2 long, by 2 ft. 7 3-4 wide, within the cornice; and it stands 4 feet 3 inches high to the apex of the cover, which is 19 inches deep.

“The larger sarcophagus has no inscription on its tablet, and although not so long as the above by 6 inches, is 3 feet 4 inches wide, and stands 5 feet 2 inches high on the apex of the cover, which is 25 inches deep.  From its capacity and emblems, it appears to have contained the remains of two persons of distinction, the corners being ornamented by figures of victory, instead of the ram’s heads which are seen on the smaller one; and on the cover is cut the apparently unfinished design of two human figures, reclining on a bed or couch.  This cover is quite solid, and of immense weight, and was firmly fixed to the body of the sarcophagus by iron clamps, which may account for its having been broken through in search of plunder.

“A brass coin was found in digging these marbles out of the ground, which is now in the possession of Commodore Elliott.  On the obverse it has the head of the empress Julia Mamaea, with the inscription ‘Julia Mamaea Augusta’: on the reverse is a figure of Venus seated, holding in  the palm of her right hand an infant erect, and in her left a spear, with the inscription ‘Venus Felix—s. c.’  Now as Julia Mamaea was the mother of Alexander Severus, who became Emperor in the year 222 of the Christian era, there seems to be no difficulty in establishing the third century as the date of the coin, and the general character of the ornaments of both the sarcophagi, as well as the styles of their workmanship, would lead to a belief that they were also of the same epoch.  But there is no ground to presume that either of them was the tomb of the mother of the emperor, and as they were found empty, any attempt to determine whose remains they once contained, would be merely hazarding an opinion.

“Mr. Giuseppe Hyzler, a well known Maltese artist, has (with the permission of Commodore Elliott) taken correct drawings of these interesting antiquities; the more interesting, because they were brought away by the Commodore as soon as discovered, and no time elapsed for t heir mutilation by the country people, nor have they suffered from the destructive hammers of curious travellers.  From these drawings, exact copies or models might be cut., at a trifling expense, in Malta stone, and an idea be thus preserved of the beauty of design of two monuments of Roman grandeur, which are about to leave the old world forever.”

(Pages 110-11.)

“Frigate Constitution passed up to the navy yard at Norfolk, on Thursday, to be dismasted.”    (Page 111.)


Number 13 (September 27, 1838)

“Commodore Elliott is distributing the antiquities he collected in Greece, &c., to the different universities and colleges throughout the country.  To the University of Virginia he has presented a Vase, taken from the channel of Corfu, and a piece of a capital of the Temple of Bacchus, at Tyre, with the appropriate devices; also a jug found entombed in the island of Cerigo, two large granite Balls, six feet and a half in diameter, taken from the Dardanelles, and an eagle cut by an American artist from a fragment of the Stadium at Alexandria.”

(Page 199.)

Number 14 (October 4, 1838)

“Pensacola, Sept. 15, --  …It is said that Captain Bolton, late of the navy yard, is appointed to the command of the frigate Constitution, destined for the Mediterranean.”    (Page 220.)

Number 20 (November 15, 1838)

“Present by Commodore Elliott to Girard College. --  During the proceedings of the city council of Philadelphia, on Thursday, Nov. 1.

“The Chair presented the following letters from Isaac Roach, Esq., and Commodore Jesse D. Elliott:

“To Wm. Rawle, Esq., President Common Council.

Philadelphia, Nov. 1, 1838.

“Sir: In conversation with Commodore Elliott, U. S. Navy, at Harrisburgh, in September last, he expressed a desire to present to the city of Philadelphia a Sarcophagus of much value, brought by him to this country.  I suggested the Girard College as a suitable depository for it, and have received the accompanying letter from Capt. Elliott, with drawings of the sculpture, which I request may be laid before councils for their decision.

“Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,

I.    Roach.

“Carlisle, Sept. 19, 1838.

“Dear Sir:  I am pleased to learn, by the conversation I had with you at the unexpected meeting at Harrisburgh, that your connection with the erection of the Girard College, at Philadelphia, might enable you to present a facility, by which the valuable relic of antiquity, obtained at Syria during my visit last summer, and brought home in the Constitution, might have a connection with it.

“The Sarcophagus is of Roman origin, and is believed to exist with the second century; was obtained about three quarters of a mile north east of the present city of Beyroot, where once stood the ancient city of Beiritus.  It is of pure white marble, ornamented with sacrificial and other devices, as represented in the accompanying drawing, and appears to me might appropriately be connected with the Institution, which, when completed, will be both ornamental and useful to the city of Philadelphia.

“Should this tender be accepted, it will afford me much satisfaction to forward the authority, by which it may be removed from the Navy Yard at Norfolk, its present temporary depository, to that of Girard College, Philadelphia, its permanent abode.

“I am, very truly yours,

J. Duncan Elliott.”

“P. S.  On referring to one of the journals of the city of Philadelphia, a more detailed description may be had.

“Major Isaac Roach,

Late of the U. S. Army, Philadelphia.”     (Pages 318-9.)


Number 23 (December 6, 1838)

                                      “OFFICIAL—NAVAL GENERAL ORDER

                                                           ”Navy Department,

                                                                       "November 28, 1838.

“The practice of bringing home, in the public vessels of the United States, various animals, such as horses, asses, mules, and other quadrupeds, formerly authorized by this Department, having been found by recent experience productive of great inconvenience, is hereby strictly prohibited in future.

J. K. Paulding.”    (Page 368.)